Sunday, May 24, 2020

Inroduction To Companies Etisalat Lanka Business Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3322 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? As a consultant of leading management consultancy I am going to do a brief research on the organizations and behavior section. To do this assignment I have selected two companies in the telecommunication industry. One is Etisalat Lanka PVT LTD which is based in Abu Dhabi and operating in 18 countries including Sri Lanka and second company is Lanka Bell Services PVT LTD which is operated only in Sri Lanka. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Inroduction To Companies Etisalat Lanka Business Essay" essay for you Create order So in this assignment I am going to discuss briefly in their organizations structure and culture areas, and also I am going to discuss about the current leadership styles of the companies. INRODUCTION TO COMPANIES Etisalat Lanka (PVT)(LTD) Sri Lankas first Cellular networks, then called Celltel inaugurated its operations in 1989. A brand name change was done on the 25th of January 2007 and thereafter named Tigo and this was transformed with Milicom disposing its Asian operations. They are now a company fully owned and operated by the giant Emirates Telecommunication Corporation in UAE. It has extended operations to Asian markets such as India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Indonesia and now Sri Lanka, recording over 100 million subscribers across 18 countries offering opportunities for synergy with their other operations in the region. Etisalat officially commenced its operations in Sri Lanka on the 25th of February 2010. Lanka bell limited Lanka Bell is a telecommunication operator that provides full range of telecommunication service to business and residential customers in Sri Lanka. With the recent introduction revolutionary low cost CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) technology, Lanka Bell continues to expand its robust modern digital network that currently specializes in internet, data and voice services. Lanka Bell was formed in 1997 as the single largest BOI Company in Sri Lanka. It was subsequently acquired by the privately held diversified conglomerate Milford Holdings (Private) Limited in 2005. Lanka Bell remains firmly rooted in Sri Lanka as a telecommunications giant that continues to challenge the industry through its unparalleled portfolio of services. SECTION 01 The organizations structure and culture Lanka Bell and Etisalat Etisalat and Lanka bell both are running in the telecommunication industry so most of the factors in the culture and structure are same. They both are using functional organizational structure 1.1 Organization structure of Lanka Bell Services (PVT) (LTD) Finance Director SalesMarkt. Board of Directors Chairman Managing Director Customer Service Depart. Technical Mang. HR Admin GM Technical Operation Assistant manager Senior manager General Manager -HR Marketing manager Business Analysis Manager HR Manager- Revenue Assurance DGM control /MIS Area Sales Managers Sales Executives HR Assistants Billing staff Director Internal accountant Director Manager- credit control Director Senior service executives Director Trainer GM IT teams Associates clerical Supervisors Director Customer care Executives Director Internal accountant Director Billing staff Director Organization structure of Etisalat Lanka (PVT) (LTD) 1.3 Organizations culture at Lanka bell and Etisalat There are many definitions for organizational culture but a popular and simple way of defining culture is how things are done around here A more detailed definition is : The collection of traditions, values, policies, beliefs, and attitudes that constitute a pervasive context for everything we do and think in an organization (Atkinson) There are four g types of culture such as: Power culture, Role culture, Task culture and person culture. As both companies are in the telecommunication industry and also both companies are larger companies in Sri Lanka they are following the Role culture. What is Role Culture? Role culture stereotyped as a bureaucracy and works by logic and rationality. Role culture rests on the strength of strong organizational pillars the functions of specialists in, for e.g.; finance, purchasing and production. The work of, and interaction between the pillars is controlled by procedures and rules and coordinated by the pediment of senior managers. Role or job description is more important than the individual and position is the main source of power. (Laurie J. Mullins 8th edition) So role culture is Common in most organizations today. In a role culture, organizations are split into various functions and each individual within the function is assigned a particular role. The role culture has the benefit of specialization. Employees focus on their particular role as assigned to them by their job description and this should increase productivity for the company. This culture is quite logical to organize in a large organization. Different dimensions of organizations culture in Etisalat and Lanka Bell Profit Orientation In Etisalat and Lanka Bell profit orientation is law because their main target is to give a best service to their customers, they are concerning highly on customer satisfaction and delight People Orientation People orientation is high in Etisalat because they are paying high salary to their staffs and they are also paying special incentives according to their performance, their working environment is very pleasant, they are organizing get to gather parties and motivational programs for their employees but in Lanka Bell People orientation is Law. Team Orientation Team Orientation is high in Etisalat because its employees prefer to work in groups rather in individuals to achieve their sales targets. So team orientation will lead the company to increase their sales. But in Lanka Bell team orientation is Low where their employees are prefer to work as individuals Innovation Innovation is high in Etisalat they are coming with new products quickly, they starts with prepaid connection, after that came with postpaid, launched 3G, broadband and they are going to launch Etisalat TV. But in Lanka Bell it is very low they are rely only in CDMA connection ] Mission statement of Etisalat Lanka PVT LTD To extend peoples reach. At Etisalat, we are actively developing advanced networks that will enable people to develop, to learn and to grow Vision statement of Etisalat Lanka PVT LTD A world where people reach is not limited by matter or distance. People will effortlessly move around the world, staying in touch with family, making new friends as they go, as well as developing new interests. Businesses of all sizes, no longer limited by distance, will be able to reach new markets. Innovative technologies will open up fresh opportunities across the globe, allowing the supply of new goods and services to everyone who wants them. Vision statement of Lanka Bell Be Sri Lankas premier next generation communication Information Technology solutions provider Mission statement of Lanka Bell To provide innovative next generation technological solutions by identifying and meeting customer needs better than any other industry player, while maximizing the growth of our business for the benefit if our stakeholders Impacts and relationships of two companies through their structure and culture Performance for two companies through their structure and culture How organizational theories underpins the practice of management The different approaches used by the management of both companies There many approaches used by the both companies those are : Human relations approach Systems approach Contingency approach Human Relations approach The main emphasis of the classical writers was on structure and the formal organization, but during the 1920,s the years of the great depression, greater attention began to be paid to the social factors at work and to the behavior of employees within an organization that is, to human relations. Human relations approach Emphasized importance of human attitudes, values and relationships for the efficient and effective functioning of work organizations. Systems approach The classical approach emphasized the technical requirement of the organizations and its needs-organizations without people the human relations approaches emphasized the psychological and social aspects, and the consideration of human- needs- people without organizations Attention is focus on the total work organization and the inter relationships of structure and behavior. Productivity is viewed as a function of the interplay among people, structure, and the environment. The organization is a complex social and technical open system that requires human, financial, and material resources. Contributions of Systems Approach To Management:- Under systems approach, managers have a good view of the organization.It gives importance to interdependence of the different parts of an organization and its environment. It foretastes consequences and plans actions. A system thinking warns managers against adopting piecemeal approach to the problem-solving Contingency Approach The contingency approach to organization developed as a reaction to the idea that there are universal principles for designing organizations, motivating staff etc. newer research suggested that different forms of organizational structure could be equally successful. (Class Notes) The contingency approach, which can be seen as an extension of the systems approach, highlights possible means of differentiating among alternative forms of the organization structures and systems of management. (Laurie J. Mullins 8th edition) The organizations structure must be matched to its environment to enhance performance. The optimal form of an organization is contingent on the circumstances faced by that organization including patients, third-party payers, regulators, and personnel. Section 02 Different leadership styles that Etisalat and Lanka Bell are following: Definition Leadership style is the way in which the functions of leadership are carried out, the way in which typically behaves towards members of the group. Both companies are using the Democratic style, and Laissez- faire (Genuine) style because of marketing growth and due to the size of the company, for which the autocratic style is not suitable to follow in the telecommunication industry. Democratic style is where the focus is more with the group as a whole, and there is greater interaction within the group. The leader ship functions are shared with the members of the group and the manager is more part of a team. Laissez- faire (Genuine) style is where the manager observes that members of the group are working well on their own. The manager consciously makes a decision to pass the focus of power to members, to allow them freedom of action to do as they think best, and not to interfere but is readily available if help is needed. There is often confusion over the style of leadershi p behavior. Analysis of different leadership styles and their effectiveness The democratic leader works with the group to help members to come to their own decisions, the Laissez- faire leader leaves the group alone to do whatever it wants. Both styles are good for both the companies, because there are number of teams, and departments, in both companies. Therefore the democratic style will suite certain departments and teams, when there is a situation where the team members are unable to make a good decision, compared to the Laissez- faire style which will be applicable to departments and teams who are able to make effective decisions rather than relying on the managers decisions. Effectiveness of Democratic Style Risk is low. Managers have experience in making effective decisions; therefore this reduces the risk of making bad or wrong choices. If the ideas are going to be open for everyone, then everyone needs to feel comfortable enough to put their ideas on the table. So there are lots of ideas will generated It takes advantage of the knowledge and expertise of individuals in different areas, for high quality, flexible decision making. Keeps staff informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities. Staff likes the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale increasing. Develops plans to help staff evaluate their own performance. Allows staff to establish goals Encourages staff to grow on the job and be promoted Effectiveness of Laissez- faire (Genuine) style The manager provides little or no direction and gives staff as much freedom as possible so it motivates employees. In the telecommunication sector there are lots of sales team so, those teams can do their own works to achieve their own goals, this will increase the sales All authority or power given to the staff and they determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own. Employees are involved in decisions. This encourages motivation through greater interest and involvement so new ideas are generated. The free reign approach can prove an effective type of leadership when the team has achieved identity and cohesion, resulting in motivated and resourceful team members. In such situations, the sharing of authority and minimal direction empowers team members. Impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation of employees of Etislat and Lanka Bell when they face the technological breakthrough When there is a technological breakthrough that has taken place last week affecting the companies, and the industry as whole, a democratic style leader could consider the following actions to motivate the employees: Introducing the main goal of the given project Encourage team members to communicate openly, honestly and continuously Members should be made aware of the companys economical structure and growth to help them think and produce ideas that are more applicable to the company. Arranging a brainstorming session to collect new ideas to compete with the breakthrough. The ideas collected through the brainstorming session have to go through the new product development process in order to face the new technological breakthrough. Increasing the working hours, and pay the employees more for working overtime. Should produce special incentives according to their performance SECTION 03 3.1 DIFFERENT MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES FOR LANKA BELL Maslows hierarchy of need theory A useful starting point is the work of Maslow and his theory of individual development and motivation published originally in 1943. Maslows basic preposition is that people wanting beings. They always want more, and what they want depends on what they already have. He suggests that human needs are arranged in a series of levels, a hierarchy of importance. (Mullins, pg 257, 8th Ed. 2007). In this motivation theory Maslow has identified the human needs in five main levels. From at the lowest level physiological needs, through safety needs, love needs and esteem needs, to the need for self-actualization. 450px-Maslows_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg.png Image 01. Maslows hierarchy of need model Herzbergs two-factor theory The Two-factor theory (also known asÂÂ  Herzbergs motivation-hygiene theoryÂÂ  andÂÂ  Dual-Factor Theory) states that there are certain factors in theÂÂ  workplaceÂÂ  that causeÂÂ  job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction. Herzbergs original study consisted of interviews with 203 accounts and engineers, chosen because of their growing importance in the business world from different industries in the Pittsburgh area of America. He used the critical incident method. Subjects were asked to relate times when they felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad about their present job or any previous jobs, they were asked to give reasons and a description of the sequence of events giving rise to that feeling. Responses to the interviews were generally consistent and revealed that there were two different sets of factors affecting motivation and work. This led to the two-factor theory of motivation and job satisfaction. (Mullin s, pg 261, 8th Ed. 2007). images.jpg Vrooms expectancy theory The model of motivation of Vrooms expectancy theory, particularly as it was extended by Porter and Lawler and supplemented by several other theories. Expectancy theory is a broad theory of motivation that attempts to explain the determinants of workplace attitudes and behaviors. The three major concepts underline expectancy theory are those of Valence, Instrumentality and Expectancy, which form VIE theory. Valance: Valance is a measure of the attraction a given outcome holds for an individual, or the satisfaction the person anticipates receiving from a particular outcome. Instrumentality: Instrumentality is a persons belief about the relationship between performing an action and experiencing an outcome. Determining peoples instrumentalities is important because their desire to perform a particular action is likely to be strong only when both valance and instrumentality are perceived as acceptably high. Expectancy: Expectancies are beliefs regarding the link between making an effort and actually performing well whereas knowledge about valances and instrumentalities tells us what an individual wants to do. We cannot know what the individual will try to do without knowing the persons expectancies. Conclusion Expectancy theory thus defines motivation in terms of desire and effort whereby the achievement of desired outcomes results from the interaction of valances, instrumentalities, and expectancies. Desire comes about only when both valance and instrumentality are high, and effort comes about only when all three are high. 4. Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGregor: McGregor, in his book The Human side of Enterprise states that people inside the organization can be managed in two ways. The first is basically negative, which falls under the category X and the other is basically positive, which falls under the category Y. After viewing the way in which the manager dealt with employees, McGregor concluded that a managers view of the nature of human beings is based Under the assumptions of theory X: Employees inherently do not like work and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. Because employees dislike work, they have to be forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Employees avoid responsibilities and do not work fill formal directions are issued. Most workers place a greater importance on security over all other factors and display little ambition. In contrast under the assumptions of theory Y: Physical and mental effort at work is as natural as rest or play. People do exercise self-control and self-direction and if they are committed to those goals. Average human beings are willing to take responsibility and exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving the problems of the organization. That the way the things are organized, the average human beings brainpower is only partly used. On analysis of the assumptions it can be detected that theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals and theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. An organization that is run on Theory X lines tends to be authoritarian in nature, the word authoritarian suggests such ideas as the power to enforce obedience and the right to command. In contrast Theory Y organizations can be described as participative, where the aims of the organization and of the individuals in it are integrated; individuals can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards the success of the organization. However, this theory has been criticized widely for generalization of work and human behavior. SUITABLE MOTIVATIONAL THEORY FOR MANGERS AT LANKA BELL From the theories mentioned above it is understandable that managers need to pick one or two theories that are more applicable for their own company to work more effectively and generate higher numbers of positive outcomes Therefore based on this assignment manager of Lanka bell needs to pick out a suitable motivational theory in order to run the company with great success. Understanding the needs of Lanka bell it would be advisable that the manager should initially pick Herzbergs two-factor theory due to the following reasons. Why Herzbergs two-factor theory is important? And effectiveness of using Herzbergs two-factor theory Herzberg (1968) saw two basic needs of individuals, and he suggests two factors. The need to avoid unpleasantness, satisfied (temporarily, and in a rather negative way) by environmental factors The need for personal growth, satisfied at work only by motivating factors Environmental Factor or Hygiene factor In this factor Herzberg has explained about the working environment which is company policy and administration, Salary and job security, in this factor he mentioned the main needs of the employers. Motivator factor Motivator factors, on the other hand, create job satisfaction and can motivate an individual to superior performance and effort. These factors fulfill the individuals higher need for a sense of self-actualization or personal growth, and include: Status Advancement Gaining recognition Being given responsibility Challenging work Achievement Growth in the job Effectiveness of using Herzbergs two-factor theory Herzberg encouraged managers to study the job itself (nature of tasks, levels of responsibility) rather than conditions of work. Dissatisfaction arise from environment factors-satisfaction can only arise from the job. If there is sufficient challenge, scope and interest in the job, there will be a lasting increase in satisfaction and the employee will work well; productivity will be above normal levels. the extent to which the job must be challenging or creative in order to provide motivation will depend on each individual, his ability, his expectation and tolerance for delayed success. CONCLUTION

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Essay about Faulkners Use of Foreshadowing in A Rose For...

In William Faulkner’s short story A Rose for Emily the order of events, though ordered un-chronologically, still contains extensive uses of foreshadowing. Faulkner Foreshadows Emily’s inability to perceive death as finality, Homer Baron’s death, and the fact that she [Emily] is hoarding Homers dead body. Faulkner also uses precise detailing and dynamic repetition in certain areas that contain foreshadowing, to grasp the reader’s attention. At the beginning of the short story, Faulkner does not elude too much to the coming events in the story. Perhaps our first clue of things to come, comes from this text on page 90 So she vanquished them, horse and foot, just as she had their fathers thirty years before about the smell. That was two†¦show more content†¦Emily says to the druggist â€Å"I want poison† (p.94) She says this twice which is important to this text. If you read further in that passage the writer has taken careful consideration to make that passage very detailed. By the end of the paragraph the author has strongly alerted us that Emily will kill something bigger than rats, something like a human. The impact of this short phrase â€Å"I want poison† in the story as well as not telling the druggist what she wants the poison for, leaves the reader to draw his or her own conclusions. In the case of the town, they thought that Emily would kill herself. Another detailed passage in this story is when Emily is buying several men’s items such as a toilet set, and a man’s suite as well as having the pieces of the toilet set monogrammed with the initials H.B. At the point in the story when Emily is purchasing these men’s items, Homer has not been seen at all by anyone since he was last seen entering Emily’s house one evening several days before. However the town’s people presume that Homer has simply left town for a while but that they are still getting married. This event is de tailed foreshadowing because it allows the reader to ask why would Emily buy men’s things if he has not been seen in some time? And reflecting on the answer. One of the more subtle repetitive foreshadowing phrases in this story is â€Å"iron grey† (p.95) which is repeated twice when describing Emily’s hair. Although this foreshadow is notShow MoreRelatedEssay on William Faulkners A Rose for Emily1539 Words   |  7 PagesWilliam Faulkners A Rose for Emily As any reader can see, A Rose for Emily is one of the most authentic short stories by Faulkner. His use of characterization, narration, foreshadowing, and symbolism are four key factors to why Faulkners work is idealistic to all readers.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The works of William Faulkner have had positive effects on readers throughout his career. Local legends and gossip trigger the main focus of his stories. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How to Write a Research Essay Free Essays

This guide looks at writing a research essay. We also have other useful guides to different sorts of essays including persuasive essays and critical essays, so take a look at these as well. Obviously, research essays have a lot in common with the other forms of essays: the language should be academic, and they should be clearly structured with an introduction, main body and conclusion. We will write a custom essay sample on How to Write a Research Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Refer to our guide ‘what is an essay’ for more details. This guide will focus on what is unique about a research essay. The Purpose of a Research Essay In order to understand how to write a research essay, it is necessary to understand what it is, so you can focus upon what you are asked to do. A research essay is primarily concerned to give an informed overview of a particular topic, based on the most appropriate research in the field. Depending on the subject, the research may also need to be recent. In some cases, a research essay also needs to analyse or critique a perspective, or argue for a particular point of view. All research essays should present a full survey of a particular field of knowledge. Research essays, or papers, are associated particularly with PhDs. Getting Started Make sure you thoroughly understand what you are asked to do, read the title (if there is one) and also any documents your tutor has given you with further guidelines. Are you being asked to do a report on a particular topic, analyse an issue, or something else Plan a schedule of work (what you are going to do, and by when) and set deadlines for yourself in order to meet the final deadline set by your department. Use the course textbooks, reading materials and reading lists as a starting point. Expand outwards and carry out keyword searches in relevant electronic databases. Use bibliographies and reference lists for more ideas. Keep a note of questions and ideas as you go along. Working on your Essay Continue to make notes as you research. Consider using a table to collate information. Don’t forget to include full details of the paper or textbook – you’ll need these for the reference list. Note the page number of any quotations you use It’s often a good idea to brainstorm with others: your tutor, your fellow students, or even friends outside your course. Different people bring new perspectives. Make sure you are working to schedule. If there’s a problem and you are finding it hard to progress as you need to, consider seeking advice from your tutor. You might be being unreasonable about how long stages should really take, or using inappropriate research strategies. As you research, move from a broad focus to a narrow one. Initially look for overviews of the topic using a range of tools from key word searches of internet databases to hand searching journals. While giving a broad overview, and covering different perspectives, don’t lose track of what interests you about the topic. As you learn more about the subject, continuing to make notes, develop a particular focus to shape your essay. Writing Up your Ideas Organization is key. You should by now have an extensive collection of well-organised notes. Start organising the collection in terms of common themes or sub-topics. This stage may well reveal gaps in your research which you can now address. You should now be breaking down the information into its parts, and showing how they relate to each other, looking at different aspects of the topic and relating them together. You could compare and contrast, bring out advantages and disadvantages, show the logic of cause and effect, develop the implications of a particular premise Now is also the stage to remove irrelevant information Make sure your writing style is appropriate for an academic audience. Your tutor might suggest a model structure, otherwise you might use an outline similar to this: Introduction (problem statement, outline of area, what will be covered) Main body I (overview of area) Main body II (main theoretical perspectives) Main body III (practical perspectives / current implications of topic) Main body IV (the future, suggestions, reflections) Conclusion (summary of essay, suggestions for future research / practice) And Finally†¦ Consider having other people read through your essay and critique it. Even if you disagree with their comments, the new perspective is useful. Read through your essay yourself to check it makes sense; look for grammatical and spelling errors. It’s easier to do this if you print a copy out rather than reading it again on screen. Double check your references and citations. Make sure you use the recommended format. Bibliography State University of New York (2013) ‘What is a Research Paper?’ [online] (cited 13th February 2013) available from http://www.esc.edu/online-writing-center/resources/research/research-paper/ University of Leicester (2013) Writing Guide 2: Writing a Research Paper [online] (cited 13th February 2013) available from http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/law/current/writing-guide/Writing_Guide_Research_Paper_2009.pdf Schwartz, K L (1997) ‘Step by Step Research and Writing’, [online] (cited 12th February 2013) available from http://www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~gzt/tips/step_by_step_research_and_writing.pdf How to cite How to Write a Research Essay, Essays

How to Write a Research Essay Free Essays

This guide looks at writing a research essay. We also have other useful guides to different sorts of essays including persuasive essays and critical essays, so take a look at these as well. Obviously, research essays have a lot in common with the other forms of essays: the language should be academic, and they should be clearly structured with an introduction, main body and conclusion. We will write a custom essay sample on How to Write a Research Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Refer to our guide ‘what is an essay’ for more details. This guide will focus on what is unique about a research essay. The Purpose of a Research Essay In order to understand how to write a research essay, it is necessary to understand what it is, so you can focus upon what you are asked to do. A research essay is primarily concerned to give an informed overview of a particular topic, based on the most appropriate research in the field. Depending on the subject, the research may also need to be recent. In some cases, a research essay also needs to analyse or critique a perspective, or argue for a particular point of view. All research essays should present a full survey of a particular field of knowledge. Research essays, or papers, are associated particularly with PhDs. Getting Started Make sure you thoroughly understand what you are asked to do, read the title (if there is one) and also any documents your tutor has given you with further guidelines. Are you being asked to do a report on a particular topic, analyse an issue, or something else Plan a schedule of work (what you are going to do, and by when) and set deadlines for yourself in order to meet the final deadline set by your department. Use the course textbooks, reading materials and reading lists as a starting point. Expand outwards and carry out keyword searches in relevant electronic databases. Use bibliographies and reference lists for more ideas. Keep a note of questions and ideas as you go along. Working on your Essay Continue to make notes as you research. Consider using a table to collate information. Don’t forget to include full details of the paper or textbook – you’ll need these for the reference list. Note the page number of any quotations you use It’s often a good idea to brainstorm with others: your tutor, your fellow students, or even friends outside your course. Different people bring new perspectives. Make sure you are working to schedule. If there’s a problem and you are finding it hard to progress as you need to, consider seeking advice from your tutor. You might be being unreasonable about how long stages should really take, or using inappropriate research strategies. As you research, move from a broad focus to a narrow one. Initially look for overviews of the topic using a range of tools from key word searches of internet databases to hand searching journals. While giving a broad overview, and covering different perspectives, don’t lose track of what interests you about the topic. As you learn more about the subject, continuing to make notes, develop a particular focus to shape your essay. Writing Up your Ideas Organization is key. You should by now have an extensive collection of well-organised notes. Start organising the collection in terms of common themes or sub-topics. This stage may well reveal gaps in your research which you can now address. You should now be breaking down the information into its parts, and showing how they relate to each other, looking at different aspects of the topic and relating them together. You could compare and contrast, bring out advantages and disadvantages, show the logic of cause and effect, develop the implications of a particular premise Now is also the stage to remove irrelevant information Make sure your writing style is appropriate for an academic audience. Your tutor might suggest a model structure, otherwise you might use an outline similar to this: Introduction (problem statement, outline of area, what will be covered) Main body I (overview of area) Main body II (main theoretical perspectives) Main body III (practical perspectives / current implications of topic) Main body IV (the future, suggestions, reflections) Conclusion (summary of essay, suggestions for future research / practice) And Finally†¦ Consider having other people read through your essay and critique it. Even if you disagree with their comments, the new perspective is useful. Read through your essay yourself to check it makes sense; look for grammatical and spelling errors. It’s easier to do this if you print a copy out rather than reading it again on screen. Double check your references and citations. Make sure you use the recommended format. Bibliography State University of New York (2013) ‘What is a Research Paper?’ [online] (cited 13th February 2013) available from http://www.esc.edu/online-writing-center/resources/research/research-paper/ University of Leicester (2013) Writing Guide 2: Writing a Research Paper [online] (cited 13th February 2013) available from http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/law/current/writing-guide/Writing_Guide_Research_Paper_2009.pdf Schwartz, K L (1997) ‘Step by Step Research and Writing’, [online] (cited 12th February 2013) available from http://www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~gzt/tips/step_by_step_research_and_writing.pdf How to cite How to Write a Research Essay, Essays

Monday, May 4, 2020

Drug Smuggling Essay Example For Students

Drug Smuggling Essay Drug SmugglingDrug smuggling is on a current up raise and there seems to be no way ofstunting it growth. But here a some ways some states are trying to slow therate of drug smuggling. In Illinois there is a program called Operation Cash Crop or the OCC. This is a combine of the ISP and the DEA. Its goal is to locate places wheremarijuana is grown then destroy all of its gardens. During the span of 1983-88these OCC led to 442 arrest and destroyed over 2 million marijuana plants. Andin 1984 there was 64,300 plants destroyed along. There is also a program called Operation Valkritre or O.V., this programarrested 633 suspected drug smugglers and seized nearly 3,000 Kilograms ofmarijuana and 2,000 kilograms of crack that was being brought into Illinois. More then 3 quarters of these arrest were in 1988 alone. Some of the thing that the government are trying to do to help stop thishorrible thing are sending the army out in the streets to help seize some of thedrugs on the streets, and the government is also putting more money into protectthe boarders from all immigrants bringing illegal drugs into the United Statesof America. There is also a lot of money put into a huge wall/fence going acrossmost of the whole southern boarder line. Along the coast of the east side andthe west side are hundreds of check in places to help stop from letting inillegal drugs. Here is a case about 21 sailors that were arrested for smuggling cocaineand heroin to Italy. They have been doing those on a regular basis because mostnavy trips can go through boarders without being check for illegal drugs. Thesailors were caught with 20 pounds of illegal drugs which had street value ofthousands of dollars. The reason there are not a lot of illegal drugs cominginto the U.S. boarders is cause we have high tech aircrafts and vessels andsurveillance to detect drugs. Some of the places where crack is a problem are where a country does nothave money to support a high tech drug resistance around the borders of therecountry. That is the reason that there is such a huge drug problem in countrieslike Mexico and some of the poorer counties in Russia. Most of the drugs thatseep into American are usually brought into from Mexico. The government is trying to build a more resistant border line to stopall flow of drugs coming into the American boarder line. After the drugs make it into America they go to California and Arizona. Then there are allot of people that will buy the illegal substance. After itstart in California the drug goes to the whole country. The reason there isnot allot of drugs coming in from the east coast is because we have numerouscheck in places where all items on the ship or boat are thoroughly checked tomake sure there are no illegal substances. But on the border line in Mexico there are some places where there areno check in places and that is why more drugs are illegally transported in theUnited States. Some of the ways people can illegally but secretly bring in the drugsare in different forms. Like inside Tums, frozen foods, and in baking sodaboxes. The reason this works is because at the check in posts they dontusually check foods and other everyday things. There are now allot more programs trying to help stop drugs from cominginto the U.S.A. here are some names of these programs, C.I.A., D.E.A., and theC.E.O.s and there is also allot of local drug resistance groups. .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a , .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .postImageUrl , .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a , .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:hover , .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:visited , .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:active { border:0!important; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:active , .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Stem Cell Dilemma EssayNow you wonder where all of crack and illegal drugs are made. It allstarts in places like Mexico where drugs can be grown and you dont even get introuble for it. Then they bring it to the U.S. where the poorest person thatbrings the drug in can get what seems to be a large amount of money for theillegal substance, and that is why there are so many illegal drugs in the UnitedStates. Over half of the drugs that make it into America are from places likeColombia in Central America. Some of the techniques that the police attempt to do are going out intothe streets to act like they are people buying drugs. So what they do isapproach a seller then they ask how much for the product and what they aregetting and then they show there badges and make the bust. This is one of thebest techniques there is because there is no way of being detected by the drugdealer, thats why there were over 1,000 arrests in the year nineteen-ninetyfive. After all of the arrest are made you may wonder where all of thesubstances and money end up, well the police intake them to the police stationthe money is used to either purchase new equipment or given to charity. Thedrugs are usually destroyed or taken to a local hospital for medical use. Most drugs are sold and bought in poor suburbs. This location is meantto be an areas where very few police drive through. But the police are startingto catch on. Although there are allot of new high tech ways of locating and stoopingdrug transfers from happening. there still are allot of illegal drugs out on the streets of thisgreatly populated country. There has been a slight uprise of all drug smugglingarrests., which means there are still allot of drugs out there. But the WarAgainst Drugs is still going on and maybe one day in our future these countryreally will be DRUG FREE. Now about the legalization of drugs and what Richard Nixon the presidentin 72 thought when he came into office about the drug problem startin to expandso he thought about legalizin all drugs except heroin. But he didnt and Ithink he did the right thing. The percentage of 12-17 year olds has doubled from 1.6 mil. to 2.9 mil. 1 in three high school seniors now smoke marijuana and 48.4% of the class of1995 has tried it. L.S.D. use has been soaring in the last 25 year it went up 11.7%The rate of cocaine and heroin related hospitalizations reports havewent to 65% since 1990 to 1994. The place most of the drugs have the most problem is in the western partof America properly cause most of the drug comes from the Mexican borders. BibliographyInternet: www.altavista.com21 saliorsillionis preventiondrug title 4DRUG IN AMERICABy robert long1993What next?by frank loinheart1994

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Is it Ethical and Moral to use Monosodium Glutamate free essay sample

This paper explores the use of the substance MSG in food. This paper discusses the controversial use of MSG that began in the 1970s, and takes a philosophical approach as to whether or not its use is ethical. From the paper: According to Kant, being a rationalist, the utilitarian point of view being used is very wrong. The FDA has a duty to society to protect them from substances like MSG. Using the utilitarian perspective in this case seems very egoistic and selfish; if MSG went off the market, food sales would take a drop, many companies would have to come up with different products that would sell without containing MSG.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Special Educational Needs Essay Example

Special Educational Needs Essay Example Special Educational Needs Essay Special Educational Needs Essay Special education needs. The last fifty years have seen significant changes in the education of students with special learning needs. An estimated 1. 7 million pupils in the UK have special educational needs (SEN), with over 250,000 having statements of SEN (Russell 2003, 215). Many positive advances have been made in educating these children, with special needs children receiving more options and learning opportunities. How these opportunities are presented has been an ongoing source of debate. There are basically two schools of thought in special education: one advocates mainstreaming and inclusion, the other supports special schools and segregated programmes. Legislation and educational policy have swung back and forth between the two camps, and while there continues to be disagreement on how best to serve SEN children, legal advances regularly provide for better provision overall for these children’s learning needs. Entering the 1950s, SEN provision was based on the 1944 Education Act, which called on LEAs to decide a child’s need for special treatment and appropriate educational measures (Anon 2004, 1). Children deemed â€Å"ineducable’ were sent to special schools (Anon 2004, 1). These post-war educational classifications, while seemingly harsh by today’s standards,   â€Å"were seen as a positive improvement† (Potts 1995, 399). By the 1960s, terminology changed from mentally deficient and ‘feeble-minded’ to educationally sub-normal, and an emphasis on mainstreaming SEN students into regular public schools grew (Potts 1995, 399). The Warnock Report, The Education of Handicapped Children and Young People, was published in 1978 (Potts 1995, 398). The document â€Å"provided the foundation for revolutionary change in thinking about the educational needs of children with special needs† (Anon 2004, 2). The report sought to cover any student learning needs that could not be met by teachers in a typical mainstream classroom, and advocated inclusion rather than special schools (Anon 2004, 2). Lady Warnock contended in her report that â€Å"we should consider the ideal of including all children in the common educational enterprise of learning, wherever they can best learn† (Kent 2005, 29). The Warnock Report was soon followed by the Education Act of 1981, a sweeping legislation regarding education in general, but with significant impact for students with special learning needs (Potts 1995, 398). The definition of SEN broadened considerably, and more children were required to be evaluated for SEN, leading to steady increases in the number of special education students throughout the next two decades (Potts 1995, 398). Importantly, the Act prevented any child from being denied education, regardless of impairment, and strongly supported mainstreaming and inclusion whenever possible (Kent 2005, 29). The 1981 Education Act requires a formal assessment of all potentially SEN children, a provision retained by subsequent legislation (Kenworthy and Whittaker 2000, 220). A ‘Statement of Special Educational Needs’ is produced by educational authorities, who are responsible for defining the child’s areas of need and proposing educational guidelines to best serve the child (Kenworthy and Whittaker 2000, 221). The SEN Statements are to place children in mainstream schools if the child’s needs can be met there, his or her presence does not interfere with other children’s learning, and inclusion is an efficient use of resources (Kenworthy and Whittaker 2000, 221). The UN Rights of the Child Convention, adopted by the UK in 1991, continued the 1981 Education Act’s emphasis on inclusion. The Convention contended, amongst other things, that disabled children â€Å"should have effective access to and receive education which encourages the fullest possible social integration and individual development† (Anon 2004, 2). Not all parents or LEAs supported inclusion, however, and many families argued they should have more input into decisions regarding their children’s education, and that the complex and bureaucratic appeals process needed reform (Goldthorpe 2004, 130). Parents who disagreed with an LEA’s assessment of or recommendations regarding their children made an appeal before a local panel of elected representatives in a lengthy and complicated two-tier system (Kenworthy and Whittaker 2000, 224). The process often resulted in logjams, and delays were frustrating to all parties involved (Kenworthy and Whittaker 2000, 224). In 1993 the government responded with a new Education Act, which established the SEN Tribunal (Henshaw 2003, 7). The Tribunal provided parents with rights of redress, whereby they could challenge decisions by the LEA regarding their children (Henshaw 2003, 7). Parents’ (and later children’s) views were now required to be given   equal validity in the assessment and decision processes (Henshaw 2003, 7). In 1994, a revised Code of Practice on Special Educational Needs further supported family involvement (Kenworthy and Whittaker 2000, 224). The Code was designed to guide and improve the overall provision for SEN students, and â€Å"charges those responsible with providing the education which is appropriate with regard for the child’s special educational need† (Anon 2004, 3). Significant legislation continued throughout the 1990s. The comprehensive Disability Discrimination Act of 1995 detailed comprehensive civil rights for all disabled people, including SEN students (Anon 2004, 3). The 1996 Education Act continues government emphasis on mainstreaming and inclusion, providing â€Å"a legal framework for the assessment and development of special education provision for children with special education needs† (Anon 2004, 3). â€Å"In exercising their powers and duties under the current statute, LEAs must have regard to the general principle that pupils are to be educated in mainstream schools unless that is incompatible with the wishes of the parents and the needs of the child or the provision of efficient education for other children† (Henshaw 2003, 4). Additional regulations related to the Act and implemented in 1997 officially require parents to be consulted and their advice taken in creating a child’s SEN   statement (Anon 2004, 3). The Children Act 2000 requires government and educational authorities to make first consideration the best interests of the particular child holistically, rather than simply basing decisions his or her educational needs (Goldthorpe 2004, 129). The Act also affirms the importance of parental choice, and the view of the child as part of a family unit (Goldthorpe 2004, 130). In view of legislation one would assume parents would favour inclusion; however, more recently the pendulum appears to be swinging back towards the continuance of special schools over mainstreaming, at least in some camps. For example, Kent (2005, 30) contends Lady Warnock now believes that â€Å"the concept of inclusion was ‘the most disastrous legacy’ of her 1978 report,† and currently advocates â€Å"an immediate review of SEN provision and a moratorium on the closure of special schools. †Ã‚   [pic][pic][pic] Top of Form Order Now. It takes less than 2 minutes. 1. *  Email  Ã‚  [pic] 2. *  Phone  Ã‚  [pic] 1. *  Submit your essay question: please give as much detail as possible)  [pic] Submit Bottom of Form [pic]The passage of the Special Educational Needs Disability Act 2001 (SENDA) provides for closure of special schools only as mainstream schools have developed programmes and resources to meet SEN students’ requirements (Kent 2005, 29). This throws the SENDA into conflict with the pro-inclusion Education Act 1996. Henshaw (2003, 3) contends â€Å"We are beginning to see a remarkable growth in the tensions and conflict arising from the practical implications of implementing aspects of the Education Act 1996 and Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001.    Russell (2003, 221) however, argues SENDA has â€Å"created higher expectations of the potential achievements of disabled children and raised awareness in education providers of their duties to promote access and inclusion. †Ã‚   SENDA importantly establishes a new set of Tribunal regulations, the Special Educational Needs Tribunal Regulations 2001, which extends the Tribunal to also co ver appeals made on the basis of discrimination (Henshaw 2003, 7). This allows parties in the appeals process to invite any number of witnesses to attend the appeal and speak on their behalf, and opens the hearings to any invited parties (Henshaw 2003, 7). Wider government initiatives in the past few years have also increased opportunity and provision for SEN students. The Carers and Disabled Children Act 2001 provides financial and resource allocations, offering â€Å"new opportunities for flexible and individualised packages of support through the use of direct payments† (Russell 2003, 217). The government’s broader Special Educational Needs and Disability Regulations 2002 also includes provisions to address and prevent â€Å"discrimination against disabled people in their access to education† (Henshaw 2003, 8). The National Learning Disability Strategy and the Department of Health’s Valuing People Implementation Team both seek to encourage more and improved community-based services for SEN children and their carers (Russell 2003, 221). The government also created the Disability Rights Commission in 2002, designed to ensure all services consider the needs and rights of disabled persons and seek to address them proactively (Russell 2003, 215). Groundbreaking initiatives such as the new SEN Action Programme â€Å"offer real opportunities for positive change and development† (Russell 2003, 217), and additional legislative reform is currently being considered based on findings of the 2004 Ofsted Report regarding the effective provision for SEN students in mainstream schools (Kent 2005, 29). Students with special education needs have benefited from each of these legislative initiatives, with the provision and options for their education needs becoming more effective and their families gaining greater input. Whilst these students will always face learning challenges, they now have greater options for and input into the learning alternatives that most effectively address their needs.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Kiosk Technology Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Kiosk Technology - Research Proposal Example Kiosk point-of-sale systems provide 24 x 7 availability to the customers where they can make transactions in an easy, user-friendly manner. The ease, with which transactions can be made, provides an important element towards an organization's ability to attract customers; as the customers look for user-friendly and always available systems that can take care of their needs. Kiosk promises to be the technological advancement that can take care of this need. In addition, kiosks provide customers with product information and interactive features that improves the overall image of the company in customers' minds. Kiosks are available in various types and for various purposes. Ranging from a simple cash register to a complex and integrated ATM (Automated Teller Machine), kiosks are believed to improve customer relationships, reduce headcounts for manual/ traditional operations, to take benefit of technology boom, to achieve accuracy and efficiency in operations and to improve customers' p erception about the company by providing various marketing and product/ services information on the kiosk terminals. This research will concentrate on evaluating the use of kiosks at var... Presenting Problem Any strategic investment in technology is made only if there are visible benefits and high expected returns from the investment. Kiosks have been used at POS sites with a hope to increase customer visits and their satisfaction levels that might ultimately lead to an increase in business revenue. However, there are no measurements and or performance evaluation mechanisms to find out the effectiveness of kiosks in adding to customer delight at the point of sale sites; and if at all there are some benefits to it. My research will help establish a relationship between kiosks and the POS systems to determine if kiosks add value to the overall productivity of POS sites and how can this value be measured, if at all. This can be used as part of feasibility analysis for strategic IT investment in kiosk technology by companies at their point of sale systems sites. Scope and Scale The scope of this research can not be restricted to few organizations or customers only. Since kiosks are being used by a variety of companies in a number of instances, it is wise to sample different sets of businesses and customers to develop a representative output for the entire universe of customers and businesses. The scope of this research includes surveys to be conducted with both customers who make use of kiosk technology and businesses that employ kiosk systems at the point of customer interaction. I will gather surveys from approximately 25 respondents belonging to various sites and areas, and then will attempt to compile the results. The number of surveys and interviews is only an estimate with an expected variation of ten percent for the number of respondents for the survey. Target The relationship between customer interaction with kiosk at POS systems and

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Future of HCIs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Future of HCIs - Essay Example On the other hand, linguistics deals with the development of machines and human languages and the link between these phenomena. As computers become common in culture, designers are progressively looking for ways to make interfacing with these devices to be easy, harmless and more effective. By 2020, computer users are expected to interrogate machines. Moreover, computers are anticipated to form the primary part of these interactions since there will be new rules of association with machines that will in turn grow into â€Å"techno-dependency†. Even though papers will still be used in the future, digital paper will also flourish thereby giving room for creativity, for instance, social network magazines will form part of real time interaction. Digital storage of even more features of people’s lives, from a mobile handset calls to CCTV recordings, could be a reality in the future. Additionally, wider network coverage will mean secrecy will be a key emphasis of the HCI community. Human "digital footprint", that is, the sharing of more aspects of people’s lives through digital photography, blogging, podcasting and video, is set to get bigger, and this will raise crucial questions about how much information we should store about

Monday, January 27, 2020

Child Abuse and Neglect (CAN) Research Proposal

Child Abuse and Neglect (CAN) Research Proposal SYNOPSIS Child abuse and neglect (CAN) is a serious public health problem and occurs in varying proportions or magnitudes, resulting from burden imposed on children by parents or adults. Most adults often impose their wishes on children without any recourse on their feelings. This flagrant (deliberate) imposition more often than not instilled so much fear in the minds of thechildren(such as fear of early marriage, child labour, allegation of witchcraft and so on). Statistics indicate that, there were an estimated 896,000 substantiated cases of CAN in the United States (US) in 2004. Cases involving approximately 4.5 million children were referred to Child Protective Services throughout the country each year for investigation into allegations of abuse and neglect. Of these reported cases 30 per cent concluded were abuse and neglect of children (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Studies conducted by World Health Organization and International Society for Prevention of Child Ab use and Neglect (2006) showed that CAN has been and continues to be a major public health problem in the United States, Africa including Nigeria. Similarly, a study in Bauchi State showed that 59.8 per cent of schoolgirls were neglected from being enrolled in school (Targeted States High Impact Project- TSHIP, 2012). From the foregoing statistics, there is evidence of CAN, but the prevalence or extent may not have been determined. Child is a valuable asset to a good parent that needs to be protected. The Child Right Act (CRA) in UNICEF-Nigeria (2011)defined a child as a person below the age of 18 years. In this study, a child is a person between the ages of 10-20 years. These children at this age may be vulnerable to CAN because they may not have known their rights, of which these rights are supposed to be protected by parents and caregivers, but, unfortunately, mostabuse and neglect of children is carried out by people the children know and trust, such as parents, foster parents or parents’ partners, schoolmates, teachers, caregivers and employers. Following from above, children who fall victims are mostly abused by people they know and these CAN is either overtly or covertly. Such cases may not even be reported. This worrisome and unprecedented trend is more profound in developing nations of Asia and Africa including sub-Saharan Africa (UNICEF, 2009). Abuse, is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that encompasses a broad range of behaviours, events, and circumstances, unlike random acts of violence or exploitation (National Academies of Sciences (NAS, 2009). NAS described child abuse as all intentional actions that cause harm or create a serious risk or harm (whether or not harm is intended) to a child by a caregiver or other person who stands in a trusted relationship to the child. Child abuse is of different forms, namely: physical, sexual and psychological (emotional and/or verbal aggression. Therefore, physical, emotional and sexual abuse will be examined in this study. Another core concept in this study is child neglect. Child neglect means failure of caregiver to provide for a child’s basic needs. Child neglect manifests in various forms, namely: physical, emotional, educational and medical neglects, which will be examine. Demographic factors may be implicated in the perpetration of CAN. Demographic is the attributes or characteristics that define vividly the children’s population in Bauchi State in relation to abuse and neglect which may be use to predict an occurrence of certain behaviour. In this study, predictors refer to potential attributes or characteristics that can be used to foretell the occurrence of child abuse and neglect by means of special knowledge or inference. Examples of predictors in any given population may include: Age, gender, religious affiliation, marital status, location, family income/economic status, educational attainment and occupation. The current study uses the term â€Å"predictors† to describe potential variables contributing to child abuse occurrence, but makes no assumption as to the causal role of these variables. The respondents of this study are the children(secondary school ), whom acts are perpetrated by the parents. The reason for using children is that, parents may be reluctant to admit abuse or neglect. More so, children at the secondary school age are at the receiving end; they experience it, feel the impact and above all suffer the consequences of CAN. However, parents may be part of those who will provide information on the quantitative data. Prevention refers to actions that make something impossible or very difficult to happen. In this study, prevention refers to the systematic, coordinate actions taken by health personnel, social workers and others to reduce, delay or eliminate child abuse and neglect in society especially in Bauchi state, Nigeria. There are majors for preventing child abuse and neglect. Masures may be a plan that is intended to achieve a particular purpose .These may include: Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention measures, which will be examined in this study. This study will anchor on three theories; Developmental-ecological Model (DEM), Caregiver Stress Theory (CST) and Cumulative Risk Model (CRM). In Nigeria, Child Rights Act 2003 (CRA) incorporates all the rights and responsibilities of children; consolidate against physical, mental or emotional injury, abuse or neglect, maltreatment, torture among others. Regrettably, parents in Bauchi State sent children to hawk, farm for longer period of the day, girls are given out for early marriage, and children are treated with herbs when they fall sick instead of going to the health facilities for proper diagnosis and treatment. Parents regard these as means or acceptable ways of instilling discipline in children. Literature reveals that there is child abuse and neglect in Nigeria including Bauchi State. However, the prevalence or extent has not been ascertained. This is supposedly the situation in Nigeria and Bauchi state in particular. The question, therefore, arises and that is: what is the prevalence of child abuse in Bauchi state. This prompted the researcher to investigate the demographic predictors of CAN by parents and prevention measures in Bauchi State. The purpose of this study is to investigate demographic predictors of CAN and formulate preventive measures against its occurrence. Eleven objectives and eleven corresponding research questions and eight hypotheses where postulated to guide the study. The study will be of great benefit to Lawmakers, parents, public health educators, in-school and out- of-school children (youths) and the public in general. The result may likely reveal that girls suffer CAN than boys. This result will benefit social welfare workers, government and health educators. This will provide adequate knowledge and information to the government; social welfare workers and health workers on how to protect children against CAN in Bauchi State. The study will be conducted in Bauchi state, Nigeria. The study will cover demographic predictors of CAN and prevention measures against child abuse and neglect by parents in Bauchi State. The study is also delimited to forms of child abuse and neglect. These will be studied along side Predictors such as age, gender, religious affiliation, academic level, location, marital status parity and occupation and also be delimited to three theories Developmental-ecological Model (DEM), Caregiver Stress Theory (CST) and Cumulative Risk Model (CRM). The Literature will be reviewed under the following headings, Conceptual Framework;Theoretical Framework; Empirical Studies; and Summary of Review of Related Literature. The study will employ the descriptive survey design. Nworgu (2006); described this design as that permits the description of conditions as they exist in their natural setting. Adalio (2010) used descriptive survey design to conduct a study on demographic predictors of corporal punishment endorsement University of Florida. The descriptive survey research design, therefore, is most appropriate for this study. The successful applications of the design by the aforementioned investigator in her study suggested a possible success for use in this study. Bauchi state was created in 1976 out of the defunct North East state. Bauchi states have twenty Local Government Areas (LGA’s) and have six Emirates. The state spans two vegetation zones namely the Sudan Savannah and Sahel savannah. This made the state to be predominantly farmers. In addition, Bauchi state is endowed with a range of tourist attraction (Yankari game reserve and Sumu wildlife park) that captures and satiates the pleasure and sensibilities of visitors, therefore the â€Å"motto† : â€Å"Pearl of tourism† The population of the state is projected at 4.5million. Like all other ethnic groups in Nigeria, the state operates strong form of social organizations. These organizations (ethnic groups) have cultural similarities and share similar social occupational practice, festivals, naming ceremonies and a high degree of ethnic interaction especially in marriage. Culture and poverty play a key role in CAN in Bauchi state, because most parents give out their daughters in marriage as early as nine years, on the assumption that it prevents sexual promiscuity. The children more often than not, may not know their rights such as right to education, right to life, or even right to be protected. Even if they know their rights, they may not be able to stand for it for the fear of parental punishment. Besides, they still depend on their parents for the provision of their basic needs. This, therefore, makes them vulnerable to CAN in Bauchi State. The population for the study will consist of secondary school children students in Bauchi State which is estimated at 550,421(public and private). The sample size for this study will consists of one thousand five hundred and eleven (1511) secondary school students in Bauchi State Nigeria. This is in line with the suggestion of Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2011), that when a population size is five hundred (500,000.) and above at (95%) confidence level at (5% interval), the sample size should be six hundred and sixty three (663) and above will be the sample (see Appendix II). The multi-stage sampling procedure will be employed to draw up the sample size for the study (see appendix IV). The instrument for data collection will be the researcher structured questionnaire called Demographic Predictors of Child Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire (DePCANQ). The questionnaire will consist of 75 items consisting of four sections: A,B,C, and D, The validity of the instrument will be established by giving the draft instrument, the specific objectives and research questions to five experts, three from Department of Health and Physical Education and one each from Department of Sociology and Science Education (measurement and Evaluation Unit), all of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. They will be requested to determine the suitability of the items and also to determine whether the items are in line with the purpose, and check for appropriateness of the items in terms of language used, objectives, research questions and hypotheses of the study. The experts’ corrections, inputs, and suggestions will be used to produce the final instrument that will be used for the study. To establish the reliability of the instrument, split half method will be used. Frankfort-Nachmias and Nachmias (2006) explained split half as a method of assessing the reliability of an instrument by dividing the items into two equal parts and correlating the scores in one part with scores in the other. In this study, twenty (20) copies of questionnaire will be administered to twenty (20) respondents in Dengi, Kanam LGA Plateau state who will not be included in the study but who have the same characteristics with the study population. The reason for using split half is to estimate the internal consistency and to exclude some error arising from psychological disposition, fatigue, and health (Gall, Borg, 2007). The reliability of the instrument for section B will be established through the use of Cronbach Alpha technique, since the items of the instrument are polychotomously scored (Nwogu, 2006). The results of the reliability estimates will be shown in the appropriate Appendix. Cronbach Alpha K-R-20 according to Mohsen and Reg (2011) can be used to determine internal consistencies of the instrument. Reliability correlation coefficient of 0.70 and above will be accepted for the instrument. Ellen (2011) explained that if the correlation coefficient attains 0.70 and above, the instrument should be considered reliable for the study. But if the correlation coefficient obtained is not up to 0.70 and above, the instrument will be revalidated to make it reliable for the study. In order to gain access to the respondents, a letter of introduction will be obtained from the Head, Department of health and Physical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, and will be presented to the respective school principals who will introduce the research to the heads of department, and class teachers (see Appendix). The researcher will administer copies of the questionnaire to the respondents with the help of two assistants. The two assistants will be briefed on the modalities of completing the instrument (DPCANQ). The research and the two assistants will supervise the respondents to ensure that there will be no exchange of ideas during the process of completing the questionnaire. The completed copes of the questionnaire will be collected on the spot to ensure high return rate. Research question 1 and 2 will be answered using frequencies and percentages while research 3-11 will be answered using mean and standard deviation. The entire hypothesis (1-8) will be analyzed using ANOVA statistic at .05 level of significance

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Robi Intern Report

[pic] American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB) INTERNSHIP REPORT ON â€Å"A Research on the Classification of Sales Channel: Robi Axiata Limited† Supervised By: Kazi Ahmed Farhan Lecturer School of Business American International University-Bangladesh AIUB Submitted by: Gazi Fahd Hussain ID NO: 07. 01. 02. 085 Major in Marketing School of Business â€Å"A Research on the Classification of Sales Channel: Robi Axiata Limited† LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 31 March 2011 Kazi Ahmed Farhan Lecturer School of Business AHSANULLAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Subject: Submission of Research on the Classification of Sales Channel: Robi Axiata Limited.Dear Sir, According to your advice to prepare a research on the classification of sales channel I have prepared my report on â€Å"Robi Axiata Limited†, on of the telecommunication company of Bangladesh. In this research i have explained point of sales activities of Robi Axiata Limited in detail. I gathered the infor mation as much as possible. Much of our information is collected from primary sources (visiting retailers of Robi Axiata Limited & talking with the management of Robi Axiata Limited) & some other information was collected from the internet. I enjoyed working on this report and hope you will find it innovative.Sincerely yours, Gazi Fahd Hussain ID No: 07. 01. 02. 085 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All praises for the Almighty Allah, the most merciful and beneficent, for giving me sufficient opportunity to study in B. B. A. program (American International University-Bangladesh). I am indebted to many people for providing us encouragement and support during my learning and working while making this research and we want to show our gratefulness to these people. I am very much grateful to KAZI AHMED FARHAN, my respected course instructor, who provided me the opportunity to do this report.It was not possible for me to prepare this research without his sincere permission, constant support and inspiration . I express my gratefulness to him. Thanks to the authority of Robi Axiata Limited for helping me in every possible way. My cordial thanks to ANM KHALED (Specialist, Consumer Sales & Services, Market Operation Division) & SABBIR SHOAIB (Specialist, Consumer Sales & Services, Market Operation Division) in particular for their enormous help and assistance, for providing me the required information about point of sales classification of Robi Axiata Limited.I would also like to thank my friends and peers for their encouragement, support, and suggestions which helped us to make this report a successful one. Letter of Endorsement The Internship Report entitled â€Å"Classification of Sales Channel: Robi Axiata Limited† has been submitted to the Office of Placement & Alumni, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration, Major in Marketing, Faculty of Business Administration on 31 March , 2011 by Gazi Fahd Hussain, Id No: 07-08740-2 The report has been accepted and may be presented to the Internship Defense Committee for evaluation. Any opinions, suggestions made in this report are entirely that of the author of the report. The University does not condone nor reject any of these opinions or suggestions). ______________________ â€Å"KAZI AHMED FARHAN† Internship Supervisor EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In this research paper, I have provided a quantitative and descriptive research on Classification of Sales Channel: Robi Axiata Limited, in Bangladesh. In this research paper, I have discussed & worked out with theoretical reviews of Point of sales (POS) classifications and alternation of decisions can make by the organization.More to say , that I have completed this research paper on long term broad objective and specific objectives to fulfill the information I have collected through primary & secondary data . Earlier, we have tried to review the company overviews and literature review on the purpose of the POS clas sification. At last, we have discussed & delivered some suggestions & recommendations to improve the conditions workout throughout the research for the respective organizations. The overall research is for the purpose of identifying point of sales classification and afterwards activities for the retailers in Mirpur areas, Dhaka city. ______TABLE OF CONTENTS_______ Title Page—————————————————————————i Letter of Transmittal————————————————————ii Acknowledgement————————————————————– iii Letter of Endorsement———à ¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€œ iv Executive Summary———————————————————– v Table of Content —————————————————————-vi 1. Introduction—————————————————————— 1 1. Background of the report—————————————————————–1 2. Objective of the study—————————à ¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€2 3. Scope of the report————————————————————————3 4. Limitations———————————————————————————-3 5. Statement of the problems—————————————————————-3 6.Literature Review————————————————————————–4 2. 0 Methodolog y———————————————————————–6 2. 1 Sources of Information———————————————————————6 2. 2 Methods of Data Collection —————————————————————6 2. 3 Data Analysis——————————————————————————–7 2. 4 Timeline of Activities———————————————â₠¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€-7 3. Company Overview———————————————————— 8 3. 1About Robi———————————————————————————–8 3. 2 Background of the company ————————————————————- 9 3. 3 Journey of the Country ——————————————————————–9 3. 4 Strategic Overview of Robi ———————— Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€-10 3. 5 Mission & Vision of Robi ————————————————————– 11 3. Division & Department of Robi———————————————————11 3. 7 Products & Services ———————————————————————-11 3. 8 Coverage ———————————————————————————- 13 3. 9 Organizational Structure ————†”————————————————–14 3. 10 Features of Robi ————————————————————————-14 4. 0 Finding & Analysis ———————————————————– 15 4. Key Findings of the Study ————————————————————– 31 5. 0 Recommendations ———————————————————————— 33 6. 0 Conclusion— Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€-34 7. 0 Appendix————————————————————————————— 35 1. 0 Introduction Telecommunication is the transmission of information, over significant distances, for the purpose of communication. Today the globe is a village and telecommunication has become a necessity to people’s life.Moreover, telecommunication has started introducing some diversified areas with the help of its mobile network. Nowadays, people can not think without mobile phone. Many people depend on it for their ultimate connectivity. It has become a part of people’s day to day life. Mobile technology is pr esently providing various cheap solutions in people’s daily life. Information technology enables telecom companies to provide economic solutions with a very cheap and easily available access, which was costly earlier and not accessible to some extent.Using a mobile phone has become a common measure of communication in our country. From a rickshaw puller to a higher official, everyone owns a mobile phone. The number of mobile phone users is increasing day by day. So our country has become an attractive market for mobile operators. Robi Axiata Ltd. is one of the leading mobile operators in our country who have seen this great potential. 1. 1 Background of the Report For BBA (Bachelor of Business Administration) students of University of AIUB, internship program is mandatory for every student to complete the degree.Internships provide an opportunity for students to link theory with practice and further serve as a temporary labor pool for those organizations that have committed t o participate in the internship program. The internship program has following purposes: †¢ It provides a student with a practical real world experience in the public or nonprofit sector before entering into a job market. Such experience not only increases students’ job prospects, but also teaches what is expected in terms of professional behavior. †¢ It enables a student to develop important skills which cannot be taught in the classroom. It enables a student to compare theoretical ideas learned in the classroom within the world of work. †¢ It permits a student to apply the technical skills learned in the classroom to real world problems. I have prepared this report while working as an intern in Robi Axiata Ltd. This report is based on â€Å"Marketing of Robi Axiata Ltd†. I have also covered information regarding the organizational overview and what I did and learned everyday in Robi Axiata Ltd. 1. 2 Objectives of the Study There are two kinds of objecti ves of the report. They are: ? Broad Objective ? Specific ObjectiveBroad Objective: The main objective of the study is to know how Robi classify its business channels. From the study, I also want to acquire a sound knowledge of roles, activities and responsibilities of the Consumer Channel Development unit of an organization which I can apply in my future professional life. Specific Objectives: The specific objectives of this internship report are: ? To have a clear understanding of market dynamism. ? Categories as well as find out business opportunities and potential POS for sales penetration. ? To capitalize on market by increase trade loyalty. To find out POS wise sales and find out ways to penetrate sales in future which include KYC (Know Your Customer) as well. ? To capture the snapshot of market so that in future Robi can introduce POS wise campaign, channel loyalty program etc. ? Enhance the visibility of Robi at market level. ? Service at customer door steps through identify and expanding service point. 1. 3 Scope of the Study The organization chosen was a telecommunication; therefore, the focus of the report was mainly on the Point of Sales (POS) undertaken by the organization.I tried to focus on gathering knowledge about the POS classification activities & policies of Robi Axiata Limited in depth. As, the research was a combination of both field work & theoretical knowledge, I am able to understand from my research preparation in a much detailed & clear way. 1. 4 Limitations of the Study Three months of time for a research is really very low. It is really very difficult to find out every single issue within this limited period of time. Overall the limitations those I have faced are: ? Time Frame. It was difficult to access to more internal information. ? It was really difficult for me to accumulate confidential data. ? Some retailers didn’t give attention providing information. 1. 5 Statement of the Problem After completion of this study I can able to find out the perceptions of the company practicing POS classification about the retailers and the decisions which can be effective for that. 1. 6 Literature Review There are some strategies which a business organization always applies for achieving its objectives. Business classification is one of these strategies.In Bangladesh it is always seen that business organizations classified their products for generating some value in these. In telecommunication companies, it has seen the most. For example, grameenphone Ltd. classified their SIM cards in many classes: djuice, bondhu, apon, corporate etc. Robi Axiata Limited is also one of the leading telecommunication companies in Bangladesh. SIM card with a unique customer’s identity is its basic product. It also classified its products into many categories. But recently it has a plan to classify its business channels as well.Previously, in many times Robi used to classify its products in many ways. But it was the lack of m otivation of sales people; as a result Robi did not get the expected level of sales which it expected. So it is clear that, to get the expected sales level it is also important to motivate the sales people properly. Recently Robi takes the initiative to classify its Point of Sales (POS), from which basically the products spread to the customers. Robi basically plan to rearrange their POSs into three possible parts: Premium, Gold and Silver.As the part of this project Robi has done a detail questionnaire survey. By analyzing the survey report Robi has the plan to treat its POSs accordingly. Turning Of Aktel Into Robi And Their Market Challenge. Aktel, one of the country’s top mobile phone brands, took its new name—Robi—meaning the sun, with effect from the dawn of Sunday when it also unveiled a new logo for the company at a colourful ceremony at the capital’s Suhrawardi Uddyan. Aktel will henceforth be known as Robi, underlining the rich, vibrant culture a nd heritage of Bangladesh, executives of the popular cellphone company said. Robi brings the first gleam of light that shows us the day†¦ a symbol of harvest that brings smile on the faces of farmers,’ said Michael Kuehner, the Managing Director and CEO of Axiata (Bangladesh) Ltd. , the Malaysia-based mobile operator. He went on to point out that the word Robi is also very familiar to Bangla speaking people as it is the name of their pride poet, Rabindranath Tagore. ‘We aim to develop an emotional link with the culture and roots of this nation†¦ Therefore, we chose the Bangla word Robi to be our identity,’ he said.The mobile phone operator has also taken the logo of the Axiata Group Berhad, the parent company. Axiata (Bangladesh) Limited, formerly known as TM International (BD) Limited, is a joint venture between Axiata Group Berhad (70 per cent) and Japanese NTT DoCoMo (30 percent). One of the six mobile companies in Bangladesh, Robi is the third large st mobile phone operator in terms of revenue, having some 10. 31 million subscribers across the country. Earlier, the largest mobile phone operator in the country, Grameen Phone Ltd. , had also changed its logo assuming that of Telenor Group, the major shareholders of the GP. By changing the name to a Bengali word, the company aims at aligning its services to local culture and tradition. The word has been chosen as it carries a range of dominant meanings of emotional and cultural bondage of the people of this land,’ Kuehner told a press briefing at Suhrawardi Uddyan. Robi’s head of corporate affairs Segufta Yesmin Samad and chief commercial†¦ 2. 0 Methodology of the Report 2. 1Sources of Information Robi is one the major telecom service provider in Bangladesh. Its Head Office is situated in Nafi Tower, Gulshan-1, and Dhaka.The study will primarily focus on the Consumer Channel Development unit of Consumer Sales and Service (CSS) Department of Robi where I am doing my internship. However, relevant and necessary analysis of other events and circumstances pertaining to the study will be made. The following sources have been used for the purpose of gathering and collecting data as required. A. Primary sources: ? Observation ? Personal interview ? Through personal acquaintance with the people at Marketing Division B. Secondary sources: ? Information from web. ? Brochures. ? Newspapers Clips. ? Journals, and ? HR BooksBoth primary and secondary data sources will be used to generate this report. Primary data sources are scheduled survey, informal discussion with professionals and observation while working in different desks. The secondary data sources are different published reports, manuals, price updates and different publications of â€Å"ROBI†. 2. 2 Methods of Data Collection Relevant documents and data will be obtained from CSS Department, Robi. Further material will come from previous reports, studies, articles, news published on Natio nal Dailies etc. Literature concerning explanation and theories will be collected from Internet.A questionnaire will be prepared including both open-ended and close-ended questions to get feedback from the POSs that will be used in measuring the effectiveness of the classification. Observation on the activities of the colleagues, in-depth discussion with organizational supervisor and my practical knowledge on job will be helpful to know activities, duties and responsibilities of the Consumer Channel Development Unit. 2. 3 Data Analysis After surveying, questionnaire will be reviewed and edited to ensure the completeness, consistency and reliability of data as well as to facilitate the coding process.Then, the open-ended responses will be coded and finally data will be computerized. If required, recoding will be done to facilitate analysis. Analysis of data and the preparation of the report will be done by the Microsoft Office Program (MS Word, MS Excel, and MS PowerPoint) in compute r. 2. 4 Timeline of Activities: The plan for this project is provided on the basis that it is a general guide to direction. Due to the nature of the research some information may be difficult to obtain on schedule and allowance for this needs to be made. This plan is also subject to change on re-evaluation.In every stage, strong communication with my supervisor will be maintained to get the best outcome of the report. Stage 1: Topic selection and proposal submission: 7th March, 2011. Stage 2: Gather information from secondary sources as well as obtain data from primary sources. Conduct and complete reviews of relevant literature within 24th March 2011. Stage 3: Make needed correction & Prepare draft report within 31st March 2011 and show my Internship Adviser. Stage 4: Make needed correction suggested my supervisor and prepare final report for final submission within 10th April 2011. 3. 0 Company Overview 3. 1 About Robi Axiata LimitedRobi Axiata Limited is a dynamic and leading cou ntrywide GSM communication solutions provider for Bangladesh, and is joint venture Company between Axiata Group Berhad, Malaysia and NTT DOCOMO INC, Japan. It was formerly known as Telekom Malaysia International (Bangladesh) which commenced operations in Bangladesh in 1997 with the brand name AKTEL. On 28th March 2010, the service name was rebranded as ‘Robi’ and the company came to be known as Robi Axiata Limited. Robi is truly a people-oriented brand of Bangladesh. Robi, the people's champion, is there for the people of Bangladesh, where they want and the way they want.Having the local tradition at its core, Robi marches ahead with innovation and creativity. To ensure leading-edge technology, Robi draws from the international expertise of Axiata and NTT DOCOMO INC. It supports 2G voice, CAMEL Phase II & III and GPRS/EDGE service with high speed internet connectivity. Its GSM service is based on a robust network architecture and cutting edge technology such as Intellig ent Network (IN), which provides peace-of-mind solutions in terms of voice clarity, extensive nationwide network coverage and multiple global partners for international roaming.It has the widest International Roaming coverage in Bangladesh connecting 600 operators across more than 200 countries. Its customer centric solution includes value added services (VAS), quality customer care, easy access call centers, digital network security and flexible tariff rates. By leveraging on Axiata's extensive expertise in the international communications implementation, Robi became the first mobile operator to connect Tetulia and Teknaf, which is the northern and southern most points of Bangladesh, and first to provide seamless coverage along the Dhaka-Chittagong highway.With a network covering all 64 districts of Bangladesh, coupled with the first Intelligent Network (IN) Prepaid Platform in the country, Robi is geared to provide a wide range of products and services to customers all over Bangla desh. 3. 2 Background of the Company Axiata Bangladesh Ltd. (Robi) was found as a joint company of the Axiata Group Berhad from Malaysia and the NTT DoCoMo Inc. from Japan. It operates as a Limited Liability Company, where a founder and a majority shareholder, the AXB- member of the Axiata Group Berhad owns 70% shares, while the minority shares of 30 % are being controlled by the NTT DoCoMo. . 3 Journey of the Country Robi is the dynamic and leading end-to-end countrywide GSM mobile communication solutions of TM International (Bangladesh) Limited. With a vision to be the leading service provider in the ICT sector in Bangladesh, it has contributed considerably to the improvement of tele-density of the country. This fact is apparent through Robi's presence throughout the reaches of Teknaf to Tetulia and the seamless network established along the Dhaka-Chittagong highway.Robi's investment in Bangladesh to date stands at a significant amount, which has contributed significantly towards the growth of the economy of the country while creating multifarious employment opportunities in many active areas. Among many products, Robi has launched its dynamic new service called Robi International Roaming Service, which allows Robi users to access over 550 global operators across more than 205 countries. With this robust service, Robi boasts to be the widest roaming operator in the country, far outweighing the current roaming service provider's coverage. New service and features area to be added) Robi also prides itself as a technology driven company. It has invested heavily into upgrading the systems with state of the art equipment with cutting edge technologies available today in the telecom sector such as its Short Message Service (SMS) and Voice Message Service (VMS) systems, and migration of the Pre-Paid network platform to Intelligent Network (IN), which was successfully implemented for the first time in Bangladesh.A reflection of these processes are the highly competi tive product packages and first ever services that had been offered to all Robi Customers throughout the year. It is strongly believed that Robi will be the pioneer service provider to be able to realize the long-felt needs of the customers from all walks of life by offering innumerable innovative products and value-for-money services throughout the years to come. In concert with the theme of undeniable customer appreciation, Robi celebrates the end of a remarkable year. 3. 4 Strategic Overview of RobiPrinciples of Robi: Employees of this company hold themselves accountable to the following guiding Principles for the organization- Emotional: Passionate, Creative, Respectful, and Open. Functional: Simple, Ethical, Transparent, Ownership. Passionate: We're passionate – it's in all of us. Whether visible or hidden within for whatever reason. Creative: Everything we do we should do in a creative innovative manner. Respectful: We are truly respectful to each other. Our subordinate s, peers, partners and customers. Open: We have no hidden agendas. We share information freely.Simple: Everything we do and say should be simple and easy to understand Ethical: We are moral, upright, honest, righteous, virtuous, honorable, keeping our promises in all we say and do. Transparent: A few key words and phrases sums this up: Honesty. Openness. Frankness. No lies. No deceit. No games. Easily understood. Ownership: Whilst working individually or collectively, we clearly demonstrate individual and collective ownership. 3. 5 Mission & Vision of Robi Vision To be a leader as a Telecommunication Service Provider in Bangladesh MissionROBI aims to achieve its vision through being number ‘one’ not only in terms of market share, but also by being an employer of choice with up-to-date knowledge and products geared to address the ever changing needs of our budding nation 3. 6 Division & Department of Robi ROBI is operating with following Divisions / Departments having it s establishment in different locations at Dhaka, Chittagong and other regions of Bangladesh. ROBI has following divisions and departments: ? Finance Division ? Commercial Division ? Information Technology Division ? Technical Division Human Resources Division ? Revenue Assurance Department ? Regulatory Affairs Department ? Internal Audit Department ? Corporate Affairs Department ? Corporate Strategy Department ? Supply Chain Management Department ? Credit Control Department ? Legal & Compliance Department ? Security & Safety Department ? MD’s/CEO’s Office 3. 7 Products & Services Robi's GSM service is based on a robust network architecture and cutting edge technology such as intelligent network (IN). The intelligent network (IN) provides peace-of-mind solutions in terms of voice clarity, wider nationwide etwork coverage, numerous international roaming global partners, and popular value added services (VASs), quality easy-access customer care, round the clock call cente r operations, ironclad digital network security, competitive tariff rates and precise billing. Robi provides standard mobile connections with NWD and ISO facilities. They also provide mobile-to-mobile, Mobile with T&T incoming and outgoing facilities. TMIB has an integrated and fully computerized Customer Care Billing System (CCBS), which supports virtually all subscriber-related functions with its 24-hour customer care service. . 7. 1 Product Portfolio The product line of Robi is divided into two types based on the subscription category for general subscribers – Prepaid and Post paid. 3. 7. 2 Pre-paid Packages Robi Prepaid offers a single package that delivers simplicity and flexibility at the same time. Robi Prepaid is continuously adding new features and plans to provide absolute freedom to the customers. Tariff plans are as follows- †¢ Ek second Tariff †¢ Simple tariff †¢ Normal tariff †¢ Super simple †¢ Extra simple 3. 7. 3 Post-paid Packages Dat a Packages:Robi offers flexible internet usage packages currently. There are 5 internet options available in Robi's product portfolio. ? Volume Based Pack ? Daily Browsing Pack ? 20/20 Internet Pack ? Monthly Unlimited Internet ? Pay-per-use Services ? Basic Services: Telephony & Data ? Supplementary Services: ? Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP) ? Call Waiting and Call Holding ? Call Forwarding ? Call Conferencing ? National Roaming – Both way ? International Roaming ? Itemized Billing ? Dedicated Customer Services 3. 7. 4 Value Added Services: †¢ SMS: Local & |†¢ Voice Chat |†¢ Kid Zone | |international |†¢ Easy Menu |†¢ Cricket Zone | |†¢ Robi GoonGoon |†¢ Instant News |†¢ Robi Internet | |†¢ Voice Mail |†¢ Robi Directory |†¢ MMS | |†¢ Balance Transfer |†¢ Stock Information |†¢ Robi SMS Chat | |†¢ Friends & Family (FnF) |†¢ Call Block |†¢ Job Portal | |†¢ Robi Radio |â₠¬ ¢ Missed Call Alert |†¢ mPay | |†¢ Song Dedication |†¢ Push Mail |†¢ Robi Bazar | |†¢ Robi Zone |†¢ Phone Backup |†¢ Islamic Info | |†¢ Voice Portal |†¢ BBC Janala | | Robi has the widest roaming facility among Bangladeshi mobile phone operators, with 550 operators across more than 205 countries in the world. Many more products are in line to be added to the existing array of Robi products and service the days to come. 8. Coverage Robi now Bangladesh covering all 64 districts with a robust network. With the permission from Bangladesh Govt. o cover the 3 districts of Chittagong Hill Tracts, the company is aiming to invest heavily on network development in this region. The quality of voice and invulnerable and secured service are the key strengths of Robi to expand its business and subscriber base. 3. 9 Organizational Structure The organization is headed by its Chief Executive designated as the Managing Director entrusted with overall re sponsibilities of business direction of the organization and leading dynamically towards the attainment of its Vision, Mission and Goal. In attaining the above mission, Chief strategic officer, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Marketing officer, Chief Technical Officer, Chief Human Resource Officer assists the Md. The organization organogram is in appendix page. 3. 0 Features of Robi †¢ Cellular Phone Service: †¢ Country-wide Coverage with Supreme Quality Network: †¢ Better Customer Service: †¢ Better Billing: †¢ Better Switching: 3. 10. 1 SIM-Card Identity Number: †¢ Consistent and High Quality Voice: †¢ Security: 3. 10. 2 Exciting Robi Value Added Services: †¢ Robi Itemized Billing: †¢ International Roaming: †¢ Choice of Handset: †¢ Competent Human Resource: 3. 10. 3 Customer Service †¢ SIM Change †¢ Scheme Migration (Postpaid) †¢ Re-initialization (Prepaid) †¢ Itemized Bill (Postpaid) †¢ Reconnection (P ostpaid) †¢ Activation of Value Added Services †¢ Ownership Change (Postpaid) †¢ Easy Load †¢ Address Change (Postpaid)As of June, 2010 there are 20 full-fledged customer care centers across different areas of Bangladesh – 6 in Dhaka, 3 in Chittagong, 1 in Narayangonj, 1 in Comilla, 1 in Feni, 1 in Cox's Bazar, 1 in Mymensingh, 1 in Jessore, 1 in Barisal, 1 in Rajshahi, 1 in Sylhet, 1 in Kushtia and 1 in Khulna. 4. 0 Findings & Analysis From the research, I have made in Mirpur Street, I was successfully tried to locate the light box. From the above depicted pie chart, we can easily understand that, most of the Light Boxes are displayed with Robi; about 42% of the respondents are using Light boxes attached with the Robi Axiata Company. They are highly promoted as the focused on Light Box because it is attracted to the customer/ subscribers at first sight. On the other hand, 30% of the shops are Airtel, another mobile operator that has recently acquired by B harti Airtel. And the other operators use limited in Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh.Shutter Branding is a common style in placing the small shops in the rural and urban From the above pie chart, we can see that, Most of the Shutter Branding is covered with the Banglalink Promotional Activities (71%). On the other hand, other operators do not focus much on the Shutter Branding as their activities. Painting in the shop reflects both outdoor and indoor outlook that brings out the lucrative presentation to be attracted by the subscriber. From the research in the location of Mirpur, we can see that, Banglalink, the 2nd Operator, leads the promotional activities by painting their retailer shops. In case of Robi, they are behind on this.From the pie diagram, we can understand that, maximum shops are in between 0-99 sqft space to operate their business as retailers. Because of lack of space, they are not able to keep more things in the shop. About 85% of the respondents make their shop within 10 0 sqft. As, it is a very narrow space, few of the retailers (about 15%) use their shop space about to 100-150 sqft. The Space of a shop is important in which the relevant variable is about the size of the customers / subscribers are coming for service at a time. Most of the shops are covered with the space for 1-3 persons at a time for receiving the services. It is relevant to the retailers, lack of capability of investing money for the comfortable shop space for the customers/ subscribers.The above depicted pie chart shows that, about 75% of the respondents are build a shop or rent a shop for 1-3 person service system at a time . On the other hands, few of the respondents have the capability to emerge the space of the space to 4-6 persons. From my survey, most of the retailers are involving in the mobile business (65%) because, it is the highest growth of business sectors now a day in our country. So, people are highly attracted to do business on this sector. Few of the respondent replied that they are doing business with Electronic shops (17%), few are computer shops (8%), and few are CDs shops (9%). They are considered as a second earning source in the business. [pic]From the research, I have found that, most of the people are investing about 5000-15000 taka / per day, as the business is the daily income process like Point of Sales of SIMs and other things that provided by the company. In which as the subject of the matter is about small medium enterprise, like mobile shop or other mobile accessories units, people are investing at their capability, about 58% respondents are doing business daily with the range of amount. About 39% are investing 15000 -30000 taka daily, for Point of Sales of different operators. From the graph, we can see that, Most of the Robi Retailers has the capability to invest 500-1000 Tk (75%) that placed in the inner city; others have the capability investing 1000- 3000 Tk placing their shops on the main road.Compare to Grameenphone c ustomers, retailers said that, they are not getting many customers of Robi in those areas, so they are providing low investment on Robi Easy Loads and SIMs. From the survey, I have found that, most of the retailers are able to sell all of the operators SIMs in an average amount of 25 SIMs in a week. On the other hand, and few retailers can sell more than 25 that range into 50 (32%). The amount of selling is very low because, the strictness of Government rules and regulation may be a constraint like – high price SIMs, SIM Tax, BTRC registration form to all operators. In this reason, customers are rarely encouraged to purchase a new SIM with connection.From the pie chart, we can see that, most of the weekly SIMs sales are Airtel Operators (78%) that represents the 1st position in the market in the current period. They are providing more facilities like ( Instant Bonus, Load Returns, New Sim Offers etc) that the other operators in the market. On the other hand, other operator li ke Robi (13%) is in 2nd position, because they are offering new packages in which those are attracted by the customers like the newly package â€Å"Robi Club†. From my Survey, I tried to identify, the market leader in Point of Sales as Daily Load Sales. From the chart, we can see that, Grameenphone is in 1st position in the market all over the country.Consequently, Banglalink is in 2nd Position. In some areas, Airtel & Robi are ahead in between of them. From the pie chart, most of the retailers are satisfied about the facilities of Robi provided to them (79%). Few of the respondent replied that they are getting more facilities as being a good seller (11%). Also their expectation can increase if they get proper services about retailers’ relationship. From the graph, most of the respondents are satisfied about Robi Distribution Commission System (83%). They have more expectation from Robi getting more amount of Commission as per sales of Easy Loads/SIMs. Few of them comp lained about the distribution system.From the pie chart, most of the retailers are not satisfied about the distribution of Robi SIMs that provided to them (89%) because they are not getting actual demand of SIMs in the market at the time. Sometimes they are delayed in reach to distribute there. They are getting very small amount of distribution of SIMs about to 5 -7 pieces. Few of the respondent replied that they are moderate about the facilities (8%). From my survey, most of the retailers are satisfied about the network status of Robi Axiata Limited. They are happy to see the network tower of Robi near to them . But some of them have complained about the network traffic in which the Easy Loads / SMS are not provided timely. It is really appreciated to the respondents, as they are highly satisfied about the sales representatives of Robi Axiata Limited.Because representatives are communicating with the retailer daily, as they are also happy to get anything what they want about the lo ads. 4. 1 Key Findings of the Study After evaluating the available data I got some findings. The data’s were totally related with each other . Every output I got has relation with the previous one or the next one. So the findings should be related with the created problem concern. ? As a promotional tools, Robi Axiata Limited more on Light Box in many retailers shop in Mirpur. Because , This is the first impression that attracted by the customers when they come for services in the retailers shop like – Easy Loads, Purchasing Sims, or come for knowing new packages and services.Light box is complied with LED Box which is transparent and bright. ? Robi is not concerned much as spotlighting Shutter Branding. Because, Robi doesn’t use this concept because of the peak hours time. Shutter is always open and the branding is not visible in the meantime. ? Most of the people are involved in the mobile business as their primary earning. Because it is the most high growth e conomic sectors in our country. So, people are eagerly interested involving in this business and gain profit. ? In this area, it has been a place of employment. Anyone can invest with a low capital and low risk. It doesn’t need to have very special skills to run the business. When a business is going to start for a retailer, the official processing is not much effective. Retailers often face hazardless. ? Low investment ability for Robi Axiata Limited by the retailer’s capability that severely depends on Sales results. Now –a –days, competitively, Robi is in 3rd place in customer subscriber in the market, so the retailers are investing more on others operators like Grameenphone & Banglalink. ? There is a huge demand of Robi SIMs, but there is much enough distribution system. There is a lack of distribution channel activities in Robi, it manages less SIMs distributions to the retailers, but in case of distribution, Robi is trying to increase the SIMs distr ibution, which is on process. Overall facilities are satisfactory to the retailer. The facilities are providing in case of Sales outcomes, which is given in Commission base to the retailers. In case Robi retailers, they are getting commission quickly than other operators. ? In this time, Robi network is satisfactory all over the areas. In this time, Robi spends a huge amount of money to set up more frequent network coverage all over the country. Comparing to the past situation, Robi hasn’t been faced problems in case of network facility. ? SIM distribution is very bad to the retailers for selling to the customers. This is a major problem in SIMs distribution for the retailers nd also the incompatible series of SIMs number which are chosen by the customers while purchasing. ? Retailers are not received satisfactory amount of SIMs distribution according to the demand in the market. ? Sales representatives are ought to be very active and is satisfactory to the retailers. Communi cation is utmost important increasing relationship level among retailers and customers. Robi has been managed it very successfully to them. ? Robi has no service desks compare to the other operators, which is hampering the effective service delivery to the customers. When customers are faced in any problem, they are not capable to come to share their problems to Robi Sheba because these are not nearly situated.Service desks in any retailers shop can solve this problem instantly. 5. 0 Recommendation Some of the recommendations we can deliver for the Robi Axiata Limited on Point –of – sales (POS) classification from preparing this research. Those are briefly written below in key points: ? Promotional Advertising in Branding Robi needs to be innovative and creative. ? Robi should focus on other advertising tools that have not been taken by the management. ? Robi should open a training center on POS to increase the knowledge and skills of the retailers. ? Robi should have a service desk in every retailer shops to increase the level of satisfaction of both retailers and customers. Robi should increase the SIMs sale availability to the respected high demand areas so that the retailers can sell the product of Robi to the customers easily. ? They should think about the highest sales retailers, and provide extra commission on their sales. ? To sustain in the market, Robi should focus on retailers needs and wants that need to identify. ? They must pay commission and provide facilities as much as quickly so that their expectations are fulfilled. ? They should think more in improvement of the relationship between the company and retailers. 6. 0 Conclusion Point of sales is a marketing tool to which has been in use to develop the business operation efficiency of companies. Robi from the year 2010 onwards is practicing Point of sales to increase the sales and revenue to gain profit.For Robi Axiata Limited to be profitable telecommunication company, there has t o an effective Point of Sales plan to be demonstrated clearly to the retailers A system of accountability and flow of information throughout the organization and also retailers need to be established so that the retailers have the trust to the company. All the decisions can be managed from the perspective of point of sales so that the company can classify the better retailers shop and provide good facilities to them. From this research the company can easily make decisions to them. 7. 0 Appendix Fig 01: Work plan of Robi Axiata Limited [pic] †¢ RSP= Robi Sheba Partner Figure 02 : Distribution Channel of Robi Axiata Limited Pos classification questionnaire survey Pos Name: ______________ Pos code: ________Pos address: ________________________________________________ Pos owner name: _______________________ Phone Number: _______ Visibility: 1. Light box: 2. Shutter branding: 3. Shop painting: 4. Space of the shop: a. 0-99 sqft b. 100-150 sqft c. 150-200 sqft d. 200-above 5. Custom er accommodation: a. 1-3 person b. 4-6 person c. 7-10 person d. 10 to above 6. Business type: a. Mobile phone b. Electronic c. Computer d. Cd e. Others 7. Investment ability in a day: (taka) a. 5000-15000 b. 15000-30000 c. 30000-50000 d. 50000 to above 8: Investment ability of Robi: (taka) a. 500-1000 b. 1000-3000 c. 000-5000 d. 5000 to above 9: weekly SIM sale all operators: a. 0-25 b. 25-50 c. 50-100 d. 1500 to above 10. Weekly SIM sale individual: GP BL ROBI AIR CT TELE 11. Daily load sale: GP Bl ROBI AIR CT TELE 12. The facilities of Robi a. Very good b. good c. moderate d. Bad. e. very bad 13. Distribution system of Robi: a. very good b. good c. moderate d. Bad. e. very bad 14. SIM distribution system of Robi: a.Very good b. good c. moderate d. Bad. e. very bad 15. Robi network status: a. very good b. good c. moderate d. Bad. e. very bad 16. Weekly SR visit: a. One tome b. two time c. three time d. four time e. daily 8. 0 Reference & Bibliograph ? Marketing RESEARCH: An Applied Orientation – Naresh K. Malhotra, 5 th EDITIONS, 2008, Prentice-HALL, USA. ? Anm Khaled (Specialist, Consumer Sales & Services, Market Operation Division ? Sabbir Shoaib (Specialist, Consumer Sales & Services, Market Operation Division) ? www. robi. com. bd ? www. google. com [pic] ———————– BL GP