Sunday, May 24, 2020

Inroduction To Companies Etisalat Lanka Business Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3322 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? As a consultant of leading management consultancy I am going to do a brief research on the organizations and behavior section. To do this assignment I have selected two companies in the telecommunication industry. One is Etisalat Lanka PVT LTD which is based in Abu Dhabi and operating in 18 countries including Sri Lanka and second company is Lanka Bell Services PVT LTD which is operated only in Sri Lanka. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Inroduction To Companies Etisalat Lanka Business Essay" essay for you Create order So in this assignment I am going to discuss briefly in their organizations structure and culture areas, and also I am going to discuss about the current leadership styles of the companies. INRODUCTION TO COMPANIES Etisalat Lanka (PVT)(LTD) Sri Lankas first Cellular networks, then called Celltel inaugurated its operations in 1989. A brand name change was done on the 25th of January 2007 and thereafter named Tigo and this was transformed with Milicom disposing its Asian operations. They are now a company fully owned and operated by the giant Emirates Telecommunication Corporation in UAE. It has extended operations to Asian markets such as India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Indonesia and now Sri Lanka, recording over 100 million subscribers across 18 countries offering opportunities for synergy with their other operations in the region. Etisalat officially commenced its operations in Sri Lanka on the 25th of February 2010. Lanka bell limited Lanka Bell is a telecommunication operator that provides full range of telecommunication service to business and residential customers in Sri Lanka. With the recent introduction revolutionary low cost CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) technology, Lanka Bell continues to expand its robust modern digital network that currently specializes in internet, data and voice services. Lanka Bell was formed in 1997 as the single largest BOI Company in Sri Lanka. It was subsequently acquired by the privately held diversified conglomerate Milford Holdings (Private) Limited in 2005. Lanka Bell remains firmly rooted in Sri Lanka as a telecommunications giant that continues to challenge the industry through its unparalleled portfolio of services. SECTION 01 The organizations structure and culture Lanka Bell and Etisalat Etisalat and Lanka bell both are running in the telecommunication industry so most of the factors in the culture and structure are same. They both are using functional organizational structure 1.1 Organization structure of Lanka Bell Services (PVT) (LTD) Finance Director SalesMarkt. Board of Directors Chairman Managing Director Customer Service Depart. Technical Mang. HR Admin GM Technical Operation Assistant manager Senior manager General Manager -HR Marketing manager Business Analysis Manager HR Manager- Revenue Assurance DGM control /MIS Area Sales Managers Sales Executives HR Assistants Billing staff Director Internal accountant Director Manager- credit control Director Senior service executives Director Trainer GM IT teams Associates clerical Supervisors Director Customer care Executives Director Internal accountant Director Billing staff Director Organization structure of Etisalat Lanka (PVT) (LTD) 1.3 Organizations culture at Lanka bell and Etisalat There are many definitions for organizational culture but a popular and simple way of defining culture is how things are done around here A more detailed definition is : The collection of traditions, values, policies, beliefs, and attitudes that constitute a pervasive context for everything we do and think in an organization (Atkinson) There are four g types of culture such as: Power culture, Role culture, Task culture and person culture. As both companies are in the telecommunication industry and also both companies are larger companies in Sri Lanka they are following the Role culture. What is Role Culture? Role culture stereotyped as a bureaucracy and works by logic and rationality. Role culture rests on the strength of strong organizational pillars the functions of specialists in, for e.g.; finance, purchasing and production. The work of, and interaction between the pillars is controlled by procedures and rules and coordinated by the pediment of senior managers. Role or job description is more important than the individual and position is the main source of power. (Laurie J. Mullins 8th edition) So role culture is Common in most organizations today. In a role culture, organizations are split into various functions and each individual within the function is assigned a particular role. The role culture has the benefit of specialization. Employees focus on their particular role as assigned to them by their job description and this should increase productivity for the company. This culture is quite logical to organize in a large organization. Different dimensions of organizations culture in Etisalat and Lanka Bell Profit Orientation In Etisalat and Lanka Bell profit orientation is law because their main target is to give a best service to their customers, they are concerning highly on customer satisfaction and delight People Orientation People orientation is high in Etisalat because they are paying high salary to their staffs and they are also paying special incentives according to their performance, their working environment is very pleasant, they are organizing get to gather parties and motivational programs for their employees but in Lanka Bell People orientation is Law. Team Orientation Team Orientation is high in Etisalat because its employees prefer to work in groups rather in individuals to achieve their sales targets. So team orientation will lead the company to increase their sales. But in Lanka Bell team orientation is Low where their employees are prefer to work as individuals Innovation Innovation is high in Etisalat they are coming with new products quickly, they starts with prepaid connection, after that came with postpaid, launched 3G, broadband and they are going to launch Etisalat TV. But in Lanka Bell it is very low they are rely only in CDMA connection ] Mission statement of Etisalat Lanka PVT LTD To extend peoples reach. At Etisalat, we are actively developing advanced networks that will enable people to develop, to learn and to grow Vision statement of Etisalat Lanka PVT LTD A world where people reach is not limited by matter or distance. People will effortlessly move around the world, staying in touch with family, making new friends as they go, as well as developing new interests. Businesses of all sizes, no longer limited by distance, will be able to reach new markets. Innovative technologies will open up fresh opportunities across the globe, allowing the supply of new goods and services to everyone who wants them. Vision statement of Lanka Bell Be Sri Lankas premier next generation communication Information Technology solutions provider Mission statement of Lanka Bell To provide innovative next generation technological solutions by identifying and meeting customer needs better than any other industry player, while maximizing the growth of our business for the benefit if our stakeholders Impacts and relationships of two companies through their structure and culture Performance for two companies through their structure and culture How organizational theories underpins the practice of management The different approaches used by the management of both companies There many approaches used by the both companies those are : Human relations approach Systems approach Contingency approach Human Relations approach The main emphasis of the classical writers was on structure and the formal organization, but during the 1920,s the years of the great depression, greater attention began to be paid to the social factors at work and to the behavior of employees within an organization that is, to human relations. Human relations approach Emphasized importance of human attitudes, values and relationships for the efficient and effective functioning of work organizations. Systems approach The classical approach emphasized the technical requirement of the organizations and its needs-organizations without people the human relations approaches emphasized the psychological and social aspects, and the consideration of human- needs- people without organizations Attention is focus on the total work organization and the inter relationships of structure and behavior. Productivity is viewed as a function of the interplay among people, structure, and the environment. The organization is a complex social and technical open system that requires human, financial, and material resources. Contributions of Systems Approach To Management:- Under systems approach, managers have a good view of the organization.It gives importance to interdependence of the different parts of an organization and its environment. It foretastes consequences and plans actions. A system thinking warns managers against adopting piecemeal approach to the problem-solving Contingency Approach The contingency approach to organization developed as a reaction to the idea that there are universal principles for designing organizations, motivating staff etc. newer research suggested that different forms of organizational structure could be equally successful. (Class Notes) The contingency approach, which can be seen as an extension of the systems approach, highlights possible means of differentiating among alternative forms of the organization structures and systems of management. (Laurie J. Mullins 8th edition) The organizations structure must be matched to its environment to enhance performance. The optimal form of an organization is contingent on the circumstances faced by that organization including patients, third-party payers, regulators, and personnel. Section 02 Different leadership styles that Etisalat and Lanka Bell are following: Definition Leadership style is the way in which the functions of leadership are carried out, the way in which typically behaves towards members of the group. Both companies are using the Democratic style, and Laissez- faire (Genuine) style because of marketing growth and due to the size of the company, for which the autocratic style is not suitable to follow in the telecommunication industry. Democratic style is where the focus is more with the group as a whole, and there is greater interaction within the group. The leader ship functions are shared with the members of the group and the manager is more part of a team. Laissez- faire (Genuine) style is where the manager observes that members of the group are working well on their own. The manager consciously makes a decision to pass the focus of power to members, to allow them freedom of action to do as they think best, and not to interfere but is readily available if help is needed. There is often confusion over the style of leadershi p behavior. Analysis of different leadership styles and their effectiveness The democratic leader works with the group to help members to come to their own decisions, the Laissez- faire leader leaves the group alone to do whatever it wants. Both styles are good for both the companies, because there are number of teams, and departments, in both companies. Therefore the democratic style will suite certain departments and teams, when there is a situation where the team members are unable to make a good decision, compared to the Laissez- faire style which will be applicable to departments and teams who are able to make effective decisions rather than relying on the managers decisions. Effectiveness of Democratic Style Risk is low. Managers have experience in making effective decisions; therefore this reduces the risk of making bad or wrong choices. If the ideas are going to be open for everyone, then everyone needs to feel comfortable enough to put their ideas on the table. So there are lots of ideas will generated It takes advantage of the knowledge and expertise of individuals in different areas, for high quality, flexible decision making. Keeps staff informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities. Staff likes the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale increasing. Develops plans to help staff evaluate their own performance. Allows staff to establish goals Encourages staff to grow on the job and be promoted Effectiveness of Laissez- faire (Genuine) style The manager provides little or no direction and gives staff as much freedom as possible so it motivates employees. In the telecommunication sector there are lots of sales team so, those teams can do their own works to achieve their own goals, this will increase the sales All authority or power given to the staff and they determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own. Employees are involved in decisions. This encourages motivation through greater interest and involvement so new ideas are generated. The free reign approach can prove an effective type of leadership when the team has achieved identity and cohesion, resulting in motivated and resourceful team members. In such situations, the sharing of authority and minimal direction empowers team members. Impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation of employees of Etislat and Lanka Bell when they face the technological breakthrough When there is a technological breakthrough that has taken place last week affecting the companies, and the industry as whole, a democratic style leader could consider the following actions to motivate the employees: Introducing the main goal of the given project Encourage team members to communicate openly, honestly and continuously Members should be made aware of the companys economical structure and growth to help them think and produce ideas that are more applicable to the company. Arranging a brainstorming session to collect new ideas to compete with the breakthrough. The ideas collected through the brainstorming session have to go through the new product development process in order to face the new technological breakthrough. Increasing the working hours, and pay the employees more for working overtime. Should produce special incentives according to their performance SECTION 03 3.1 DIFFERENT MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES FOR LANKA BELL Maslows hierarchy of need theory A useful starting point is the work of Maslow and his theory of individual development and motivation published originally in 1943. Maslows basic preposition is that people wanting beings. They always want more, and what they want depends on what they already have. He suggests that human needs are arranged in a series of levels, a hierarchy of importance. (Mullins, pg 257, 8th Ed. 2007). In this motivation theory Maslow has identified the human needs in five main levels. From at the lowest level physiological needs, through safety needs, love needs and esteem needs, to the need for self-actualization. 450px-Maslows_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg.png Image 01. Maslows hierarchy of need model Herzbergs two-factor theory The Two-factor theory (also known asÂÂ  Herzbergs motivation-hygiene theoryÂÂ  andÂÂ  Dual-Factor Theory) states that there are certain factors in theÂÂ  workplaceÂÂ  that causeÂÂ  job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction. Herzbergs original study consisted of interviews with 203 accounts and engineers, chosen because of their growing importance in the business world from different industries in the Pittsburgh area of America. He used the critical incident method. Subjects were asked to relate times when they felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad about their present job or any previous jobs, they were asked to give reasons and a description of the sequence of events giving rise to that feeling. Responses to the interviews were generally consistent and revealed that there were two different sets of factors affecting motivation and work. This led to the two-factor theory of motivation and job satisfaction. (Mullin s, pg 261, 8th Ed. 2007). images.jpg Vrooms expectancy theory The model of motivation of Vrooms expectancy theory, particularly as it was extended by Porter and Lawler and supplemented by several other theories. Expectancy theory is a broad theory of motivation that attempts to explain the determinants of workplace attitudes and behaviors. The three major concepts underline expectancy theory are those of Valence, Instrumentality and Expectancy, which form VIE theory. Valance: Valance is a measure of the attraction a given outcome holds for an individual, or the satisfaction the person anticipates receiving from a particular outcome. Instrumentality: Instrumentality is a persons belief about the relationship between performing an action and experiencing an outcome. Determining peoples instrumentalities is important because their desire to perform a particular action is likely to be strong only when both valance and instrumentality are perceived as acceptably high. Expectancy: Expectancies are beliefs regarding the link between making an effort and actually performing well whereas knowledge about valances and instrumentalities tells us what an individual wants to do. We cannot know what the individual will try to do without knowing the persons expectancies. Conclusion Expectancy theory thus defines motivation in terms of desire and effort whereby the achievement of desired outcomes results from the interaction of valances, instrumentalities, and expectancies. Desire comes about only when both valance and instrumentality are high, and effort comes about only when all three are high. 4. Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGregor: McGregor, in his book The Human side of Enterprise states that people inside the organization can be managed in two ways. The first is basically negative, which falls under the category X and the other is basically positive, which falls under the category Y. After viewing the way in which the manager dealt with employees, McGregor concluded that a managers view of the nature of human beings is based Under the assumptions of theory X: Employees inherently do not like work and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. Because employees dislike work, they have to be forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Employees avoid responsibilities and do not work fill formal directions are issued. Most workers place a greater importance on security over all other factors and display little ambition. In contrast under the assumptions of theory Y: Physical and mental effort at work is as natural as rest or play. People do exercise self-control and self-direction and if they are committed to those goals. Average human beings are willing to take responsibility and exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving the problems of the organization. That the way the things are organized, the average human beings brainpower is only partly used. On analysis of the assumptions it can be detected that theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals and theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. An organization that is run on Theory X lines tends to be authoritarian in nature, the word authoritarian suggests such ideas as the power to enforce obedience and the right to command. In contrast Theory Y organizations can be described as participative, where the aims of the organization and of the individuals in it are integrated; individuals can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards the success of the organization. However, this theory has been criticized widely for generalization of work and human behavior. SUITABLE MOTIVATIONAL THEORY FOR MANGERS AT LANKA BELL From the theories mentioned above it is understandable that managers need to pick one or two theories that are more applicable for their own company to work more effectively and generate higher numbers of positive outcomes Therefore based on this assignment manager of Lanka bell needs to pick out a suitable motivational theory in order to run the company with great success. Understanding the needs of Lanka bell it would be advisable that the manager should initially pick Herzbergs two-factor theory due to the following reasons. Why Herzbergs two-factor theory is important? And effectiveness of using Herzbergs two-factor theory Herzberg (1968) saw two basic needs of individuals, and he suggests two factors. The need to avoid unpleasantness, satisfied (temporarily, and in a rather negative way) by environmental factors The need for personal growth, satisfied at work only by motivating factors Environmental Factor or Hygiene factor In this factor Herzberg has explained about the working environment which is company policy and administration, Salary and job security, in this factor he mentioned the main needs of the employers. Motivator factor Motivator factors, on the other hand, create job satisfaction and can motivate an individual to superior performance and effort. These factors fulfill the individuals higher need for a sense of self-actualization or personal growth, and include: Status Advancement Gaining recognition Being given responsibility Challenging work Achievement Growth in the job Effectiveness of using Herzbergs two-factor theory Herzberg encouraged managers to study the job itself (nature of tasks, levels of responsibility) rather than conditions of work. Dissatisfaction arise from environment factors-satisfaction can only arise from the job. If there is sufficient challenge, scope and interest in the job, there will be a lasting increase in satisfaction and the employee will work well; productivity will be above normal levels. the extent to which the job must be challenging or creative in order to provide motivation will depend on each individual, his ability, his expectation and tolerance for delayed success. CONCLUTION

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Essay about Faulkners Use of Foreshadowing in A Rose For...

In William Faulkner’s short story A Rose for Emily the order of events, though ordered un-chronologically, still contains extensive uses of foreshadowing. Faulkner Foreshadows Emily’s inability to perceive death as finality, Homer Baron’s death, and the fact that she [Emily] is hoarding Homers dead body. Faulkner also uses precise detailing and dynamic repetition in certain areas that contain foreshadowing, to grasp the reader’s attention. At the beginning of the short story, Faulkner does not elude too much to the coming events in the story. Perhaps our first clue of things to come, comes from this text on page 90 So she vanquished them, horse and foot, just as she had their fathers thirty years before about the smell. That was two†¦show more content†¦Emily says to the druggist â€Å"I want poison† (p.94) She says this twice which is important to this text. If you read further in that passage the writer has taken careful consideration to make that passage very detailed. By the end of the paragraph the author has strongly alerted us that Emily will kill something bigger than rats, something like a human. The impact of this short phrase â€Å"I want poison† in the story as well as not telling the druggist what she wants the poison for, leaves the reader to draw his or her own conclusions. In the case of the town, they thought that Emily would kill herself. Another detailed passage in this story is when Emily is buying several men’s items such as a toilet set, and a man’s suite as well as having the pieces of the toilet set monogrammed with the initials H.B. At the point in the story when Emily is purchasing these men’s items, Homer has not been seen at all by anyone since he was last seen entering Emily’s house one evening several days before. However the town’s people presume that Homer has simply left town for a while but that they are still getting married. This event is de tailed foreshadowing because it allows the reader to ask why would Emily buy men’s things if he has not been seen in some time? And reflecting on the answer. One of the more subtle repetitive foreshadowing phrases in this story is â€Å"iron grey† (p.95) which is repeated twice when describing Emily’s hair. Although this foreshadow is notShow MoreRelatedEssay on William Faulkners A Rose for Emily1539 Words   |  7 PagesWilliam Faulkners A Rose for Emily As any reader can see, A Rose for Emily is one of the most authentic short stories by Faulkner. His use of characterization, narration, foreshadowing, and symbolism are four key factors to why Faulkners work is idealistic to all readers.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The works of William Faulkner have had positive effects on readers throughout his career. Local legends and gossip trigger the main focus of his stories. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How to Write a Research Essay Free Essays

This guide looks at writing a research essay. We also have other useful guides to different sorts of essays including persuasive essays and critical essays, so take a look at these as well. Obviously, research essays have a lot in common with the other forms of essays: the language should be academic, and they should be clearly structured with an introduction, main body and conclusion. We will write a custom essay sample on How to Write a Research Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Refer to our guide ‘what is an essay’ for more details. This guide will focus on what is unique about a research essay. The Purpose of a Research Essay In order to understand how to write a research essay, it is necessary to understand what it is, so you can focus upon what you are asked to do. A research essay is primarily concerned to give an informed overview of a particular topic, based on the most appropriate research in the field. Depending on the subject, the research may also need to be recent. In some cases, a research essay also needs to analyse or critique a perspective, or argue for a particular point of view. All research essays should present a full survey of a particular field of knowledge. Research essays, or papers, are associated particularly with PhDs. Getting Started Make sure you thoroughly understand what you are asked to do, read the title (if there is one) and also any documents your tutor has given you with further guidelines. Are you being asked to do a report on a particular topic, analyse an issue, or something else Plan a schedule of work (what you are going to do, and by when) and set deadlines for yourself in order to meet the final deadline set by your department. Use the course textbooks, reading materials and reading lists as a starting point. Expand outwards and carry out keyword searches in relevant electronic databases. Use bibliographies and reference lists for more ideas. Keep a note of questions and ideas as you go along. Working on your Essay Continue to make notes as you research. Consider using a table to collate information. Don’t forget to include full details of the paper or textbook – you’ll need these for the reference list. Note the page number of any quotations you use It’s often a good idea to brainstorm with others: your tutor, your fellow students, or even friends outside your course. Different people bring new perspectives. Make sure you are working to schedule. If there’s a problem and you are finding it hard to progress as you need to, consider seeking advice from your tutor. You might be being unreasonable about how long stages should really take, or using inappropriate research strategies. As you research, move from a broad focus to a narrow one. Initially look for overviews of the topic using a range of tools from key word searches of internet databases to hand searching journals. While giving a broad overview, and covering different perspectives, don’t lose track of what interests you about the topic. As you learn more about the subject, continuing to make notes, develop a particular focus to shape your essay. Writing Up your Ideas Organization is key. You should by now have an extensive collection of well-organised notes. Start organising the collection in terms of common themes or sub-topics. This stage may well reveal gaps in your research which you can now address. You should now be breaking down the information into its parts, and showing how they relate to each other, looking at different aspects of the topic and relating them together. You could compare and contrast, bring out advantages and disadvantages, show the logic of cause and effect, develop the implications of a particular premise Now is also the stage to remove irrelevant information Make sure your writing style is appropriate for an academic audience. Your tutor might suggest a model structure, otherwise you might use an outline similar to this: Introduction (problem statement, outline of area, what will be covered) Main body I (overview of area) Main body II (main theoretical perspectives) Main body III (practical perspectives / current implications of topic) Main body IV (the future, suggestions, reflections) Conclusion (summary of essay, suggestions for future research / practice) And Finally†¦ Consider having other people read through your essay and critique it. Even if you disagree with their comments, the new perspective is useful. Read through your essay yourself to check it makes sense; look for grammatical and spelling errors. It’s easier to do this if you print a copy out rather than reading it again on screen. Double check your references and citations. Make sure you use the recommended format. Bibliography State University of New York (2013) ‘What is a Research Paper?’ [online] (cited 13th February 2013) available from http://www.esc.edu/online-writing-center/resources/research/research-paper/ University of Leicester (2013) Writing Guide 2: Writing a Research Paper [online] (cited 13th February 2013) available from http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/law/current/writing-guide/Writing_Guide_Research_Paper_2009.pdf Schwartz, K L (1997) ‘Step by Step Research and Writing’, [online] (cited 12th February 2013) available from http://www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~gzt/tips/step_by_step_research_and_writing.pdf How to cite How to Write a Research Essay, Essays

How to Write a Research Essay Free Essays

This guide looks at writing a research essay. We also have other useful guides to different sorts of essays including persuasive essays and critical essays, so take a look at these as well. Obviously, research essays have a lot in common with the other forms of essays: the language should be academic, and they should be clearly structured with an introduction, main body and conclusion. We will write a custom essay sample on How to Write a Research Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Refer to our guide ‘what is an essay’ for more details. This guide will focus on what is unique about a research essay. The Purpose of a Research Essay In order to understand how to write a research essay, it is necessary to understand what it is, so you can focus upon what you are asked to do. A research essay is primarily concerned to give an informed overview of a particular topic, based on the most appropriate research in the field. Depending on the subject, the research may also need to be recent. In some cases, a research essay also needs to analyse or critique a perspective, or argue for a particular point of view. All research essays should present a full survey of a particular field of knowledge. Research essays, or papers, are associated particularly with PhDs. Getting Started Make sure you thoroughly understand what you are asked to do, read the title (if there is one) and also any documents your tutor has given you with further guidelines. Are you being asked to do a report on a particular topic, analyse an issue, or something else Plan a schedule of work (what you are going to do, and by when) and set deadlines for yourself in order to meet the final deadline set by your department. Use the course textbooks, reading materials and reading lists as a starting point. Expand outwards and carry out keyword searches in relevant electronic databases. Use bibliographies and reference lists for more ideas. Keep a note of questions and ideas as you go along. Working on your Essay Continue to make notes as you research. Consider using a table to collate information. Don’t forget to include full details of the paper or textbook – you’ll need these for the reference list. Note the page number of any quotations you use It’s often a good idea to brainstorm with others: your tutor, your fellow students, or even friends outside your course. Different people bring new perspectives. Make sure you are working to schedule. If there’s a problem and you are finding it hard to progress as you need to, consider seeking advice from your tutor. You might be being unreasonable about how long stages should really take, or using inappropriate research strategies. As you research, move from a broad focus to a narrow one. Initially look for overviews of the topic using a range of tools from key word searches of internet databases to hand searching journals. While giving a broad overview, and covering different perspectives, don’t lose track of what interests you about the topic. As you learn more about the subject, continuing to make notes, develop a particular focus to shape your essay. Writing Up your Ideas Organization is key. You should by now have an extensive collection of well-organised notes. Start organising the collection in terms of common themes or sub-topics. This stage may well reveal gaps in your research which you can now address. You should now be breaking down the information into its parts, and showing how they relate to each other, looking at different aspects of the topic and relating them together. You could compare and contrast, bring out advantages and disadvantages, show the logic of cause and effect, develop the implications of a particular premise Now is also the stage to remove irrelevant information Make sure your writing style is appropriate for an academic audience. Your tutor might suggest a model structure, otherwise you might use an outline similar to this: Introduction (problem statement, outline of area, what will be covered) Main body I (overview of area) Main body II (main theoretical perspectives) Main body III (practical perspectives / current implications of topic) Main body IV (the future, suggestions, reflections) Conclusion (summary of essay, suggestions for future research / practice) And Finally†¦ Consider having other people read through your essay and critique it. Even if you disagree with their comments, the new perspective is useful. Read through your essay yourself to check it makes sense; look for grammatical and spelling errors. It’s easier to do this if you print a copy out rather than reading it again on screen. Double check your references and citations. Make sure you use the recommended format. Bibliography State University of New York (2013) ‘What is a Research Paper?’ [online] (cited 13th February 2013) available from http://www.esc.edu/online-writing-center/resources/research/research-paper/ University of Leicester (2013) Writing Guide 2: Writing a Research Paper [online] (cited 13th February 2013) available from http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/law/current/writing-guide/Writing_Guide_Research_Paper_2009.pdf Schwartz, K L (1997) ‘Step by Step Research and Writing’, [online] (cited 12th February 2013) available from http://www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~gzt/tips/step_by_step_research_and_writing.pdf How to cite How to Write a Research Essay, Essays

Monday, May 4, 2020

Drug Smuggling Essay Example For Students

Drug Smuggling Essay Drug SmugglingDrug smuggling is on a current up raise and there seems to be no way ofstunting it growth. But here a some ways some states are trying to slow therate of drug smuggling. In Illinois there is a program called Operation Cash Crop or the OCC. This is a combine of the ISP and the DEA. Its goal is to locate places wheremarijuana is grown then destroy all of its gardens. During the span of 1983-88these OCC led to 442 arrest and destroyed over 2 million marijuana plants. Andin 1984 there was 64,300 plants destroyed along. There is also a program called Operation Valkritre or O.V., this programarrested 633 suspected drug smugglers and seized nearly 3,000 Kilograms ofmarijuana and 2,000 kilograms of crack that was being brought into Illinois. More then 3 quarters of these arrest were in 1988 alone. Some of the thing that the government are trying to do to help stop thishorrible thing are sending the army out in the streets to help seize some of thedrugs on the streets, and the government is also putting more money into protectthe boarders from all immigrants bringing illegal drugs into the United Statesof America. There is also a lot of money put into a huge wall/fence going acrossmost of the whole southern boarder line. Along the coast of the east side andthe west side are hundreds of check in places to help stop from letting inillegal drugs. Here is a case about 21 sailors that were arrested for smuggling cocaineand heroin to Italy. They have been doing those on a regular basis because mostnavy trips can go through boarders without being check for illegal drugs. Thesailors were caught with 20 pounds of illegal drugs which had street value ofthousands of dollars. The reason there are not a lot of illegal drugs cominginto the U.S. boarders is cause we have high tech aircrafts and vessels andsurveillance to detect drugs. Some of the places where crack is a problem are where a country does nothave money to support a high tech drug resistance around the borders of therecountry. That is the reason that there is such a huge drug problem in countrieslike Mexico and some of the poorer counties in Russia. Most of the drugs thatseep into American are usually brought into from Mexico. The government is trying to build a more resistant border line to stopall flow of drugs coming into the American boarder line. After the drugs make it into America they go to California and Arizona. Then there are allot of people that will buy the illegal substance. After itstart in California the drug goes to the whole country. The reason there isnot allot of drugs coming in from the east coast is because we have numerouscheck in places where all items on the ship or boat are thoroughly checked tomake sure there are no illegal substances. But on the border line in Mexico there are some places where there areno check in places and that is why more drugs are illegally transported in theUnited States. Some of the ways people can illegally but secretly bring in the drugsare in different forms. Like inside Tums, frozen foods, and in baking sodaboxes. The reason this works is because at the check in posts they dontusually check foods and other everyday things. There are now allot more programs trying to help stop drugs from cominginto the U.S.A. here are some names of these programs, C.I.A., D.E.A., and theC.E.O.s and there is also allot of local drug resistance groups. .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a , .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .postImageUrl , .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a , .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:hover , .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:visited , .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:active { border:0!important; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:active , .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u608bac49504b79452c37633f3b0c167a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Stem Cell Dilemma EssayNow you wonder where all of crack and illegal drugs are made. It allstarts in places like Mexico where drugs can be grown and you dont even get introuble for it. Then they bring it to the U.S. where the poorest person thatbrings the drug in can get what seems to be a large amount of money for theillegal substance, and that is why there are so many illegal drugs in the UnitedStates. Over half of the drugs that make it into America are from places likeColombia in Central America. Some of the techniques that the police attempt to do are going out intothe streets to act like they are people buying drugs. So what they do isapproach a seller then they ask how much for the product and what they aregetting and then they show there badges and make the bust. This is one of thebest techniques there is because there is no way of being detected by the drugdealer, thats why there were over 1,000 arrests in the year nineteen-ninetyfive. After all of the arrest are made you may wonder where all of thesubstances and money end up, well the police intake them to the police stationthe money is used to either purchase new equipment or given to charity. Thedrugs are usually destroyed or taken to a local hospital for medical use. Most drugs are sold and bought in poor suburbs. This location is meantto be an areas where very few police drive through. But the police are startingto catch on. Although there are allot of new high tech ways of locating and stoopingdrug transfers from happening. there still are allot of illegal drugs out on the streets of thisgreatly populated country. There has been a slight uprise of all drug smugglingarrests., which means there are still allot of drugs out there. But the WarAgainst Drugs is still going on and maybe one day in our future these countryreally will be DRUG FREE. Now about the legalization of drugs and what Richard Nixon the presidentin 72 thought when he came into office about the drug problem startin to expandso he thought about legalizin all drugs except heroin. But he didnt and Ithink he did the right thing. The percentage of 12-17 year olds has doubled from 1.6 mil. to 2.9 mil. 1 in three high school seniors now smoke marijuana and 48.4% of the class of1995 has tried it. L.S.D. use has been soaring in the last 25 year it went up 11.7%The rate of cocaine and heroin related hospitalizations reports havewent to 65% since 1990 to 1994. The place most of the drugs have the most problem is in the western partof America properly cause most of the drug comes from the Mexican borders. BibliographyInternet: www.altavista.com21 saliorsillionis preventiondrug title 4DRUG IN AMERICABy robert long1993What next?by frank loinheart1994

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Is it Ethical and Moral to use Monosodium Glutamate free essay sample

This paper explores the use of the substance MSG in food. This paper discusses the controversial use of MSG that began in the 1970s, and takes a philosophical approach as to whether or not its use is ethical. From the paper: According to Kant, being a rationalist, the utilitarian point of view being used is very wrong. The FDA has a duty to society to protect them from substances like MSG. Using the utilitarian perspective in this case seems very egoistic and selfish; if MSG went off the market, food sales would take a drop, many companies would have to come up with different products that would sell without containing MSG.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Special Educational Needs Essay Example

Special Educational Needs Essay Example Special Educational Needs Essay Special Educational Needs Essay Special education needs. The last fifty years have seen significant changes in the education of students with special learning needs. An estimated 1. 7 million pupils in the UK have special educational needs (SEN), with over 250,000 having statements of SEN (Russell 2003, 215). Many positive advances have been made in educating these children, with special needs children receiving more options and learning opportunities. How these opportunities are presented has been an ongoing source of debate. There are basically two schools of thought in special education: one advocates mainstreaming and inclusion, the other supports special schools and segregated programmes. Legislation and educational policy have swung back and forth between the two camps, and while there continues to be disagreement on how best to serve SEN children, legal advances regularly provide for better provision overall for these children’s learning needs. Entering the 1950s, SEN provision was based on the 1944 Education Act, which called on LEAs to decide a child’s need for special treatment and appropriate educational measures (Anon 2004, 1). Children deemed â€Å"ineducable’ were sent to special schools (Anon 2004, 1). These post-war educational classifications, while seemingly harsh by today’s standards,   â€Å"were seen as a positive improvement† (Potts 1995, 399). By the 1960s, terminology changed from mentally deficient and ‘feeble-minded’ to educationally sub-normal, and an emphasis on mainstreaming SEN students into regular public schools grew (Potts 1995, 399). The Warnock Report, The Education of Handicapped Children and Young People, was published in 1978 (Potts 1995, 398). The document â€Å"provided the foundation for revolutionary change in thinking about the educational needs of children with special needs† (Anon 2004, 2). The report sought to cover any student learning needs that could not be met by teachers in a typical mainstream classroom, and advocated inclusion rather than special schools (Anon 2004, 2). Lady Warnock contended in her report that â€Å"we should consider the ideal of including all children in the common educational enterprise of learning, wherever they can best learn† (Kent 2005, 29). The Warnock Report was soon followed by the Education Act of 1981, a sweeping legislation regarding education in general, but with significant impact for students with special learning needs (Potts 1995, 398). The definition of SEN broadened considerably, and more children were required to be evaluated for SEN, leading to steady increases in the number of special education students throughout the next two decades (Potts 1995, 398). Importantly, the Act prevented any child from being denied education, regardless of impairment, and strongly supported mainstreaming and inclusion whenever possible (Kent 2005, 29). The 1981 Education Act requires a formal assessment of all potentially SEN children, a provision retained by subsequent legislation (Kenworthy and Whittaker 2000, 220). A ‘Statement of Special Educational Needs’ is produced by educational authorities, who are responsible for defining the child’s areas of need and proposing educational guidelines to best serve the child (Kenworthy and Whittaker 2000, 221). The SEN Statements are to place children in mainstream schools if the child’s needs can be met there, his or her presence does not interfere with other children’s learning, and inclusion is an efficient use of resources (Kenworthy and Whittaker 2000, 221). The UN Rights of the Child Convention, adopted by the UK in 1991, continued the 1981 Education Act’s emphasis on inclusion. The Convention contended, amongst other things, that disabled children â€Å"should have effective access to and receive education which encourages the fullest possible social integration and individual development† (Anon 2004, 2). Not all parents or LEAs supported inclusion, however, and many families argued they should have more input into decisions regarding their children’s education, and that the complex and bureaucratic appeals process needed reform (Goldthorpe 2004, 130). Parents who disagreed with an LEA’s assessment of or recommendations regarding their children made an appeal before a local panel of elected representatives in a lengthy and complicated two-tier system (Kenworthy and Whittaker 2000, 224). The process often resulted in logjams, and delays were frustrating to all parties involved (Kenworthy and Whittaker 2000, 224). In 1993 the government responded with a new Education Act, which established the SEN Tribunal (Henshaw 2003, 7). The Tribunal provided parents with rights of redress, whereby they could challenge decisions by the LEA regarding their children (Henshaw 2003, 7). Parents’ (and later children’s) views were now required to be given   equal validity in the assessment and decision processes (Henshaw 2003, 7). In 1994, a revised Code of Practice on Special Educational Needs further supported family involvement (Kenworthy and Whittaker 2000, 224). The Code was designed to guide and improve the overall provision for SEN students, and â€Å"charges those responsible with providing the education which is appropriate with regard for the child’s special educational need† (Anon 2004, 3). Significant legislation continued throughout the 1990s. The comprehensive Disability Discrimination Act of 1995 detailed comprehensive civil rights for all disabled people, including SEN students (Anon 2004, 3). The 1996 Education Act continues government emphasis on mainstreaming and inclusion, providing â€Å"a legal framework for the assessment and development of special education provision for children with special education needs† (Anon 2004, 3). â€Å"In exercising their powers and duties under the current statute, LEAs must have regard to the general principle that pupils are to be educated in mainstream schools unless that is incompatible with the wishes of the parents and the needs of the child or the provision of efficient education for other children† (Henshaw 2003, 4). Additional regulations related to the Act and implemented in 1997 officially require parents to be consulted and their advice taken in creating a child’s SEN   statement (Anon 2004, 3). The Children Act 2000 requires government and educational authorities to make first consideration the best interests of the particular child holistically, rather than simply basing decisions his or her educational needs (Goldthorpe 2004, 129). The Act also affirms the importance of parental choice, and the view of the child as part of a family unit (Goldthorpe 2004, 130). In view of legislation one would assume parents would favour inclusion; however, more recently the pendulum appears to be swinging back towards the continuance of special schools over mainstreaming, at least in some camps. For example, Kent (2005, 30) contends Lady Warnock now believes that â€Å"the concept of inclusion was ‘the most disastrous legacy’ of her 1978 report,† and currently advocates â€Å"an immediate review of SEN provision and a moratorium on the closure of special schools. †Ã‚   [pic][pic][pic] Top of Form Order Now. It takes less than 2 minutes. 1. *  Email  Ã‚  [pic] 2. *  Phone  Ã‚  [pic] 1. *  Submit your essay question: please give as much detail as possible)  [pic] Submit Bottom of Form [pic]The passage of the Special Educational Needs Disability Act 2001 (SENDA) provides for closure of special schools only as mainstream schools have developed programmes and resources to meet SEN students’ requirements (Kent 2005, 29). This throws the SENDA into conflict with the pro-inclusion Education Act 1996. Henshaw (2003, 3) contends â€Å"We are beginning to see a remarkable growth in the tensions and conflict arising from the practical implications of implementing aspects of the Education Act 1996 and Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001.    Russell (2003, 221) however, argues SENDA has â€Å"created higher expectations of the potential achievements of disabled children and raised awareness in education providers of their duties to promote access and inclusion. †Ã‚   SENDA importantly establishes a new set of Tribunal regulations, the Special Educational Needs Tribunal Regulations 2001, which extends the Tribunal to also co ver appeals made on the basis of discrimination (Henshaw 2003, 7). This allows parties in the appeals process to invite any number of witnesses to attend the appeal and speak on their behalf, and opens the hearings to any invited parties (Henshaw 2003, 7). Wider government initiatives in the past few years have also increased opportunity and provision for SEN students. The Carers and Disabled Children Act 2001 provides financial and resource allocations, offering â€Å"new opportunities for flexible and individualised packages of support through the use of direct payments† (Russell 2003, 217). The government’s broader Special Educational Needs and Disability Regulations 2002 also includes provisions to address and prevent â€Å"discrimination against disabled people in their access to education† (Henshaw 2003, 8). The National Learning Disability Strategy and the Department of Health’s Valuing People Implementation Team both seek to encourage more and improved community-based services for SEN children and their carers (Russell 2003, 221). The government also created the Disability Rights Commission in 2002, designed to ensure all services consider the needs and rights of disabled persons and seek to address them proactively (Russell 2003, 215). Groundbreaking initiatives such as the new SEN Action Programme â€Å"offer real opportunities for positive change and development† (Russell 2003, 217), and additional legislative reform is currently being considered based on findings of the 2004 Ofsted Report regarding the effective provision for SEN students in mainstream schools (Kent 2005, 29). Students with special education needs have benefited from each of these legislative initiatives, with the provision and options for their education needs becoming more effective and their families gaining greater input. Whilst these students will always face learning challenges, they now have greater options for and input into the learning alternatives that most effectively address their needs.